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宋代筆記 vol.37 白磁鯱形水注 中國 |北宋時代 •10~11 世紀 - Water Pitcher in the Shape of a Mythical Sea Creature



SACA學會 宋代筆記 vol.37 白磁鯱形水注 中國 |北宋時代 •10~11 世紀

Water Pitcher in the Shape of a Mythical Sea Creature

China | Northern Song dynasty, 10th-11th century


展品是以模具成形的注壺,器身上佈滿了刻劃細膩的鱗片,且有類似羽毛的部分。


此類半魚半鳥的造型見於北宋的定窯、遼代的陶瓷以及龍泉窯:有白磁,同時也有青瓷的製品,比如南宋龍泉窯的青瓷鯱耳花瓶。這類在中國地區被稱為摩羯魚,日本地區稱鯱。


這件作品為獨立件十分罕見,邢窯也有相類似的綠釉、白釉製品,有雙摩羯魚(鯱)形的壺。作為這類獨立注子也同樣稀少,應該存世量是個位數範圍。



This water pitcher takes the form of a mythical sea creature with the wings of a bird. Ceramic containers shaped like animals were produced mainly during the Liao (916-1125) and Northern Song (960-1127).


關於邢窯綠釉摩羯魚壺,參考寶榜發布的文章《單色之美:松心閤中國古代藝術甄選》。


AN EXTREMELY RARE GREEN ‘MAKARA’ VASE

Tang Dynasty

唐代邢窯綠釉摩羯魚瓶




这件极为罕见的魔羯鱼瓶神秘而精致的造型是中国美学和佛教神话故事的体现和融合。其深绿的颜色让人联想到魔羯鱼居住的深海。这件摩羯鱼瓶描绘了两只这样的奇异生物,它们在自然的力量中向上翱翔,毫不费力地连接着大海和天堂,在唐代陶艺家的巧手下完成了一次吉祥的跳跃,终归永恒。


摩羯鱼为梵文makara的音译,原是印度神话中一种长鼻利齿、鱼身鱼尾的动物,汉译作摩羯或摩伽罗,被认为是“河水之精,生命之本”。




在佛教中以摩羯鱼来比喻菩萨,以爱念缚住众生,不到圆寂成佛,终不放舍。摩羯鱼也是水神,传说它常在海里游逡,拯救将沉之船。


后秦弗若多罗译《十律颂》三十三卷:“魔竭鱼……此等在海中未足为奇,有百由旬者,二百、三百乃至七百由延身。”

唐金俱叱译《七曜禳灾诀》中作摩羯。因为希腊天文学中摩羯座的形象为半羊半鱼状,故译名中宜用羊旁之羯,可参见岑蕊《摩羯纹考略》(《文物》1983年10期)。



佛教《阿含经》称其“眼如日月,鼻如太山,口如赤谷”。玄应音义一曰:“摩伽罗鱼,亦言摩竭鱼,正言摩迦罗鱼,此云鲸鱼,谓鱼之王也。”

慧苑音义下曰:“摩竭鱼,此云大体也,谓此方巨鳌鱼也。”


摩羯纹作为印度或西亚传入我国的外域元素图案,最早见于西安出土的北周安伽墓石围屏上雕刻的摩羯图案。1964年陕西三原县出土的隋代开皇二年(582年)石棺上线刻有巨口利齿的摩羯鱼造型。



唐代金银器上的这种纹饰,以西安市太乙路出土的金摩羯纹长杯和1987年陕西法门寺地宫出土的咸通九年(868年)文思院款摩羯纹荷叶形三足银盐台为例,其都表现为大口露齿的形象。

类似例子:



This extremely rare Makara vase provoke thoughts into deeper realm. The mysterious and highly sophisticated form serves as the embodiment and fusion of Chinese aesthetics and Buddhism mythical stories. Its darkish yet vibrant green colour could be related to the deep water where the Makara resides. This Makara vase depicts two of such curious creatures soaring upwards in a forceful nature, effortlessly connecting the sea and heaven in an auspicious jump, captured in eternity by the masterful hands of Tang potters. 


“Capricorn / Makara” Fish is the transliteration of the Sanskrit Makara, derived  from Indian mythology, the Madara is a long nose, sharp teeth, fish body, fish tail animals, is considered to be "the essence of the river, the essence of life”.


Makara as a motif from India or West Asia arrived China as an exotic pattern possibly around or before the 5th Century, first seen in Xi'an Anjia sarcophagus from Northern Zhou dynasty, carved with makara pattern. Also see 1964 Shaanxi Sanyuan County Sui dynasty tomb, dated in the second year of the Kaihuang (582) on the upper line of the sarcophagus carved in the shape of the Makara fish with a huge mouth and sharp teeth.  


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