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1935 Royal Academy Exhibition of Chinese Art, Burlington House London / 伦敦1935,史上最大中国艺术展览!


From November 28, 1935 to March 7, 1936, the National Palace Museum Peking unprecedentedly loaned 735 pieces for Chinese art exhibitions held in London, in addition to loans from the Central Academy, Peking Library, Henan and Anhui Provincial Museums, Nearly 1,000 pieces, accounting for 1/3 of the total exhibits, were escorted by the British HMS Suffolk, which created the strongest shock in Western society. It is an epic exhibition of Chinese Art in the west that was unparalleled in history. More than 240 museums, institutions, scholars, collectors and antique dealers from all over the world participated; the number of visitors reached 401,768: 108,914 catalogs, 3,486 additional catalogs, and 2,196 exhibition brochures was sold; In the name of art, across national borders and prejudice, this is the most important exhibition for Chinese Art ever.


1935年11月28日至1936年3月7日,国立北平故宫博物院史无前例地为伦敦举办的中国艺术展览借出735件藏品,加上中央研究院、北平图书馆、河南、安徽省立博物馆总数将近1000件,占总展品的1/3,由英国巡洋舰萨福克号押送,引起西方社会最强烈的震撼,是前无古人后无来者的史诗级别展览。全世界超过240个来自博物馆、机构、学者、藏家和古董商参与;造访的人数高达401768人,售出108914本图录,3486本附加图册,2196个展览手册;举两国之力,以艺术之名,跨越国界与偏见,原来军舰也可以这么用!

高山仰止:不可复制的伦敦中国艺术展览

Unsurpassed Brilliance:1935 International Exhibition of Chinese Art

Burlington House

Royal academy of Arts

▲ 1935年伦敦中国艺术展览海报 / 1935 London Chinese Art Exhibition Poster

▲ 英国皇家艺术学院,中英双方工作人员合影 / Royal Academy of Arts, Group photo of Chinese and British staffs.


展览缘起

伦敦国际中国艺术展览International Exhibition of Chinese Art

Burlington House, Royal Academy of Arts, LONDON 1935-6


▲ 英国皇家艺术学院伯林顿府,Burlington House,Royal Acedemy of Arts


“1935-1936年在皇家艺术学院伯灵顿府举办的中国艺术展览可谓是前无古人后无来者的史诗级别展览,展品中近1/3来自中方提供的收藏,是中英友好交流的象征,亦是中国文明的“宣言之旅”,并引发了西方世界的强烈震撼…”

1935年,为了庆祝英国国王乔治五世继位25周年,英国方面以敦睦中英邦交,促进中国艺术品的国际欣赏为初衷,向中国发出了伦敦中国艺术展览的邀请。


“国民政府接受了英方邀请,由国立北平故宫博物院理事会理事长蔡元培召集理事会议,负责展开展览选品以及国宝安全问题的讨论…”

"The Chinese art exhibition held in the Burlington House of the Royal College of Art from 1935 to 1936 is an epic exhibition that is unsurpassed to date. Nearly a third of the exhibits come from the collection provided by the Chinese side, which is a symbol of friendly exchanges between China and Britain. It is also a "manifesto" of Chinese civilization and has caused a strong sensation in the Western world."


In 1935, in order to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the succession of King George V of the United Kingdom, the British side sent an invitation of Chinese Art Exhibition in London to China with the purpose of maintaining good relations between China and Britain and promoting the international appreciation of Chinese art.


"The National Government accepted the British invitation, and Cai Yuanpei, the chairman of the board of directors of the National Palace Museum, convened a council meeting and was responsible for the exhibition selection and discussion of national treasure security issues."


▲ 蔡元培,1916年至1927年任北京大学校长;1920年至1930年,兼任中法大学校长;1928年至1940年专任中央研究院院长,在此次1935展览期间,任国立北平故宫博物院理事会理事长。


Cai Yuanpei, President of Peking University from 1916 to 1927; concurrently President of Sino-French University from 1920 to 1930; Dean of the Academia Sinica from 1928 to 1940. During the 1935 exhibition, he served as the board of directors of the National Palace Museum Director.

“展览概念最初由英方大维德爵士Sir Percial David发起,皇家艺术学院、瑞典国王古斯塔夫六世提供场地、学术支持,联合陶瓷学会创始人尤摩弗帕勒斯Eumorfopoulos、大英博物馆馆长R.L.Hobson、收藏家Oscar Raphael三位核心成员共同组织…”


"The concept of the exhibition was originally initiated by Sir Sir Percial David, British Royal Academy. The Royal Academy of Arts and King Gustav VI of Sweden provided the venue and academic support. The founder of the United Ceramic Society Eumorfopoulos, the director of the British Museum RL The three core members of Hobson, collector Oscar Raphael are all working together ... "

“国民政府接受邀请后,一致决定由中英两国元首担任监理,两国行政首长担任名誉会长,展览的规格晋升到国与国之间的重要文化交流层面,可谓举世瞩目…”


"After accepting the invitation, the National Government unanimously decided that the Chinese and British heads of state will serve as supervisors, and the executive heads of the two countries will serve as honorary presidents. The specifications of the exhibition have been promoted to the level of important cultural exchanges between countries ..."



▲ 1935年伦敦中国艺术展,拆箱过程 / 自左至右:庄尚严、特派员郑天赐、大维德爵士、陈维诚参事、英海关人员、唐惜芬、傅振伦


London Chinese Art Exhibition, Unboxing Process / From left to right: Zhuang Shangyan, Special Agent Zheng Tianci, Sir Percival David, Counselor Chen Weicheng, British Customs officers, Tang Xifen, Fu Zhenlun.

▲ 大维德爵士(左一)与卡尔坎普(中间)、瑞典国王(右三)在伯灵顿展览(1935),商代安阳武丁方盉,现藏根津美术馆


Sir Percival David (first from left) and Karl Kemp (middle) and King of Sweden (third from right) exhibit at Burlington (1935), Wuding Fang, Anyang, Shang Dynasty, now in the Genjin Art Museum

举国之力

空前的成功

“由英国海军萨福克号巡洋舰负责押运93个集装箱的中国参展文物,在伦敦展览前后分别在上海和南京各举办一次公示性质的预展和回归展,以信服于国民,同时配套印刷展览画册…”

举两国之力,以艺术之名,跨越国界与偏见,1935伦敦中国艺术展览在这样的语境下华丽诞生,展览带来知识的正能量很快就在海内外远播…”


展览在英国伦敦迅速地取得了空前的成功,造访的人数高达401768人,学生和机构享受门票折扣价。展览一共售出108914本图录,3486本附加图册,2196个展览手册以及336本Royal Society Arts Journal。全世界超过240个来自博物馆、机构、学者、藏家和古董商参与;每4位访客就有1位购买了相关图录。


"The British Navy cruiser Suffolk is responsible for escorting 93 containers of Chinese exhibited cultural relics. Before and after the London exhibition, a public preview exhibition and a return exhibition were held in Shanghai and Nanjing, respectively, in order to convince the people and print exhibition albums ... "


"Taking the power of both countries, in the name of art, across national borders and prejudices, the 1935 London Chinese Art Exhibition was gorgeously born in this context, and the positive energy brought by the exhibition will soon spread far and wide at home and abroad ..."


The exhibition quickly achieved unprecedented success in London, UK, with 401,768 visitors and discounted ticket prices for students and institutions. A total of 108,914 catalogs, 3,486 additional albums, 2,196 exhibition brochures, and 336 Royal Society Arts Journal were sold. More than 240 museums, institutions, scholars, collectors and antique dealers from around the world participated; 1 out of every 4 visitors purchased related catalogs.


▲ 参加伦敦中国艺术国际展览会,中方制蓝缎烫金巨册图录,上海商务印书馆精印。这是故宫,也是中国文物首次大规模出国展览。


Participated in the London International Exhibition of Chinese Art, Chinese-made blue satin bronzing book, fine print by Shanghai Commercial Press. This is the Forbidden City and the first large-scale overseas exhibition of Chinese cultural relics.


国民政府成立了“伦敦中国艺术国际展览会筹备委员会”,由教育部长王世杰担任主任委员,10名委员包括故宫博物院院长马衡、行政院秘书长褚民谊、交通部常务次长张道藩、铁道部政务次长曾仲鸣、内政部政务次长陶履谦等。

“委员会在上海外滩中国银行旧址(外滩23号)设立了驻沪办事处,并租用了三大间中国银行的仓库作为临时参展文物仓储。委员会经精心挑选,从存沪故宫南迁文物中选出735件藏品参展…”

The National Government established the “Preparatory Committee for the International Exhibition of Chinese Art in London”, with the Minister of Education Wang Shijie as the chairman. The 10 members include Ma Heng, President of the Palace Museum, Chu Minyi, Secretary-General of the Executive Yuan, Zhang Daofan, Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Transport, and Government Affairs of the Ministry of Railways. Deputy Minister Zeng Zhongming, and Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Tao Luqian.


"The Commission set up an office in Shanghai at the Bank of China's former Shanghai Bund (23 on the Bund) and leased three warehouses of Bank of China as temporary exhibit cultural repositories. The Commission carefully selected the cultural relics from the Shanghai South Palace Museum. 735 exhibits to be exhibited ... "


▲ 老上海,外滩旧影

最终挑选出来故宫文物包涵青铜器60件、瓷器352件、书画170件、玉器65件、景泰蓝16件、剔红漆器5件、折扇20件、文房16件、家具3件, 总数占中方借展展品总数的77%,伦敦展总展品的1/3…

“其中包括铭文最多的青铜重器毛公鼎、王羲之的《快雪时晴帖》、宋徽宗《牡丹诗帖》等故宫顶级神品…”


▲ Old Shanghai, Old Bund


The cultural relics of the Palace Museum were finally selected, including 60 bronzes, 352 porcelains, 170 paintings and calligraphy, 65 jadewares, 16 cloisonne blues, 5 red lacquer wares, 20 folding fans, 16 study rooms, and 3 furniture. 77% of the total exhibits, 1/3 of the total exhibits of the London Exhibition ...


"Including the bronze inscription Mao Gongding with the most inscriptions, Wang Xizhi's" Fast Snow Times "and Song Huizong's" Peony Poems ", etc."


→  铭文最多的青铜器 :毛公鼎 《毛公鼎》腹内铸有32行、共500字铭文,是西周晚期一篇完整的册命书。文中提到周宣王在位初期,想要振兴朝政,遂命叔父毛公瘖(有一说是毛公歆)处理国家大小事务,又命毛公一族担任禁卫军,保卫王家,并赐酒食、舆服、兵器。毛公感念周王,于是铸鼎纪事,由子孙永宝永享。(摘录自:台北故宫博物院)

Bronze with the most inscriptions: Mao Gongding


The 32-line, 500-word inscription in "Mao Gongding" is a complete book of life in the late Western Zhou Dynasty. The article mentioned that in the early days of the reign of King Xuan Xuan, he wanted to revitalize the dynasty, and ordered his uncle Mao Gongyi (one is Mao Gongyi) to handle the affairs of the country. Public service, weapons. Mao Gong missed the King Zhou, so he made the Chronicle, enjoyed by his descendants Yongbao forever. (Excerpt from: Taipei Palace Museum)

→  二王神品 :王羲之 快雪時晴帖

王羲之,快雪时晴帖,唐摹本,现藏于台北故宫博物院 / 释文:羲之顿首。快雪时晴。佳想安善。未果为结。力不次。王羲之顿首。山阴张侯。


王羲之(约303-361),祖籍山东,出身仕族世家,西晋末随父南渡,作过右军将军,会稽内史,东晋永和年间(345-356)去职,与东土名士尽山水之游。热衷诗歌,音乐与书法。他学书历程是由近而古,转益多师,取资广博,尤其精研体势,将秦篆汉隶各种不同的笔法,融于真行草体中,形成最佳体势,所以唐朝人称颂他「兼撮众法,备成一家,为万世宗师」。 这是一件行楷书短简,内容是大雪之后向友人问候。乾隆皇帝极珍爱此迹,誉之为「天下无双,古今鲜对」。乾隆十一年,他将此迹与王献之的「中秋帖」,王珣的「伯远帖」合称「三希」,宝藏在「三希堂」中。此帖一般认为是唐代精摹本。(摘录自:台北故宫博物院)


Wang Xizhi


 Wang Jizhi, Kuai Xueshiqing Post, Tang Jiben, now hidden in the Palace Museum in Taipei / Explanation: The head of Jiuzhi. It's sunny when it snows. Jia wants to be good. Unsuccessful results. Powerless. Wang Xizhi abruptly bowed. Shanyin Zhanghou.


Wang Xizhi (approximately 303-361), ancestral family of Shandong, came from a clan family, and later crossed the border with his father in the late Western Jin Dynasty. He served as a General of the Right Army, the history of Hueiji, and left in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (345-356). tour. Passionate about poetry, music and calligraphy. His learning history is from ancient times to ancient times, he turned to many teachers, gained extensive resources, and especially studied physical posture. He blended the different styles of Qin Han and Han into the real grass and formed the best posture. People in the Tang Dynasty praised him for "combining all the laws and making a family and becoming the master of all ages."

This is a short script of a regular script with the content of greetings to friends after heavy snowfall. Emperor Qianlong cherished this trace, nicknamed it "the world is unparalleled, ancient and modern are rare." In the eleventh year of Qianlong, he combined this trace with Wang Xianzhi's "Mid-Autumn Festival Post" and Wang Xi's "Bo Yuan Post" collectively called "Three Greeks", and the treasure was stored in "Three Greek Churches". This post is generally considered to be a fine copy of the Tang Dynasty. (Excerpt from: Taipei Palace Museum)


→  风流天子 :宋徽宗 牡丹诗帖

宋徽宗赵佶(1082-1135) ,北宋书画家。神宗子,哲宗时封端王。登位前,独好笔研丹青,图史射御。与王诜、赵令穰、黄庭坚、吴元瑜等交往。在位(1100-1125)期间,穷奢极侈。

但有些作品乃画院中高手代笔。画后押字用「天水」及「宣和」、「政和」小玺或用瓢印虫鱼篆文,还常押书「天下一人」。传世作品有《芙蓉锦鸡图》轴,现藏北京故宫博物院;《柳塘芦雁图》卷,藏上海博物馆;《摹张宣虢国夫人游春图》卷,藏辽宁省博物馆。(摘录自:台北故宫博物院)


Zhao Ji (1082-1135) of the Huizong Emperor of the Song Dynasty, a Northern Song Dynasty painter. God Zongzi, Zhezong was named Duanwang. Before he took office, he was good at researching Dan Qing and Tu Shi She Yu. Contact Wang Zheng, Zhao Lingzhen, Huang Tingjian and Wu Yuanyu. During his reign (1100-1125), the poor were extravagant.


However, some of the works are masters in the painting academy. After the painting, the words "Tianshui" and "Xuanhe", "Zhenghe" or seals of worms and fishes are used, and the book "One in the World" is often used. Heirloom works include the "Hibiscus Caragana Picture" axis, which is now in the Palace Museum of Beijing; "Liutang Luyan Picture", Tibet Museum of Shanghai; "Zhang Zhangxuan's Lady Touring Spring Pictures", Tibet Liaoning Provincial Museum. (Excerpt from: Taipei Palace Museum)


中方前期准备

民国精英全体出动

Chinese preliminary preparation

the "all star" elite members of China


伦敦艺术展筹委会经过精心挑选,从故宫南迁文物中选定了735件,占中方出借总数的77%,其余23%的展品分别来自中央研究院、国立北平图书馆、河南省立博物馆、安徽省立图书馆等机构。


The Preparatory Committee for the London Art Exhibition was carefully selected and 735 pieces of cultural relics were chosen from the South of the Forbidden City, accounting for 77% of the total loaned by China including items from Anhui Provincial Library and other institutions.


▲ 傅振伦护照,1935年伦敦中欧艺术展览助理干事 / Fu Zhenlun Passport, Assistant Officer, Central European Art Exhibition, London, 1935


根据故宫博物院职员,伦敦艺术展助理干事傅振伦回忆:对于参与伦敦艺术展的决定,文人学者多持反对意见

“原因有二:一是因为远涉重洋,且不论沉船或遇盗的风险,伦敦多雾潮湿,对于文物也是很大的不利。二是因为当时文物流失海外的情况甚为严重,有人担心政府此次是欲以文物换军火以抗日…”

According to the staff of the Palace Museum, Fu Zhenlun, assistant director of the London Art Exhibition, recalled that many scholars and scholars opposed the decision to participate in the London Art Exhibition.


"There are two reasons: First, because of the long distance across the ocean, and regardless of the risk of shipwreck or theft, London is foggy and wet, which is also very unfavorable to cultural relics. Second, the outflows of cultural relics from China to overseas was a norm at that time, some were worried that the government were to exchange cultural relics for arms to resist Japan ... "


徐悲鸿在申报上发表对伦敦展览的意见,指出这样重要的文物大规模出国竟然没有上保险,讽刺其真是“天才之创造”,更加指出英国来沪挑选的专员非专业人士。语气义愤填膺,徐悲鸿的发声,某些程度促进了筹备工作的进步,在接下来的日子里,保险、专家问题均得到了解决


「申报,1935年4月6日,对伦敦艺术展览上海预展的报道,申报持续报道,几乎天天见报,可谓是非常认真,也非常难得的一个史料记载。」


Xu Beihong expressed his opinion on the London exhibition in the declaration, pointing out that such a large-scale cultural relic went abroad without insurance, and ironically that it was really a "genius creation", and pointed out that the commissioners and non-professionals selected by the British came to Shanghai. The tone was filled with indignation, and Xu Beihong's vocalization promoted the progress of the preparatory work to a certain extent. In the following days, insurance and expert issues were resolved.


「Shen Newspaper, on April 6, 1935, was a report on the preview of the Art Exhibition in London. The application continued reporting, and it was reported almost every day. It is a very serious and rare historical record.」

对此,国民政府进行的第一项措施便是展览公示。在文物出国之前,先在上海外滩中国银行仓库公开展览。在结束伦敦展览归国之后,文物还在南京进行了展览,以示完璧归赵。 “1935年4月8日,伦敦中国艺术国际展览会上海预展会在外滩23号德国总会正式对公众揭幕。这是自故宫博物院成立以来,珍藏的国宝第一次在沪展出…”


In this regard, the first measure of the National Government was publicity of exhibitions. Before the cultural relics go abroad, they will be exhibited at the Bank of China warehouse in the Bund. After returning home from the London exhibition, the cultural relics were also exhibited in Nanjing to show the return of Zhao to Zhao.


"On April 8, 1935, the Shanghai International Exhibition of Chinese Art International Exhibition in London was officially unveiled to the public at the German Federation on the Bund 23. This is the first time that the national treasures in the collection have been exhibited in Shanghai since the establishment of the Palace Museum ..."


▲ 蔡元培,国立北平故宫博物院理事会理事长


“4月7日上午,汪精卫、孙科、陈果夫、于右任、戴季陶、孔祥熙、蔡元培、吴铁城等党国要员先后参观了预展;下午则是顾维钧夫妇、王晓籁、吴醒亚、杜月笙、虞洽卿、王一亭、张啸林等名流大亨和外国驻沪领事和新闻记者的专场…”

意大利大使罗亚谷诺、日本公使有吉明、捷克公使费哲尔、瑞典代办林奎斯、驻沪各国领事和新闻记者,都纷纷到场。由于总共才发出不足400张请柬,许多没有请贴的记者只能在门口徘徊。

"On the morning of April 7, Wang Jingwei, Sun Ke, Chen Guofu, Yu Youren, Dai Jitao, Kong Xiangxi, Cai Yuanpei, Wu Tiecheng and other key party and state officials visited the preview; in the afternoon, Gu Weijun and his wife, Wang Xiaoyi, Wu Xingya, Du Yuesheng, Yu Qiaqing, Wang Yiting, Special event by celebrity tycoons such as Zhang Xiaolin and foreign consuls and journalists in Shanghai ... "

The Italian ambassador Roya Gino, the Japanese ambassador Jimin, the Czech ambassador Fitzer, Sweden's ambassador Lin Kuisi, consuls and journalists from various countries in Shanghai all attended the scene. Since less than 400 invitations were issued in total, many reporters who did not invite could only hover at the door.

最初的预展 - 门庭若市

Bund 23, Shanghai 1935.4.8*

以下内容部分参考自上海市档案局

“4月8日,没有盛大的开幕仪式,预展在宁静中正式拉开帷幕。外滩23号德国总会正门口上方高悬的黄地绿字的“伦敦中国艺术国际展览会上海预展会”横幅格外醒目…”

On April 8, there was no grand opening ceremony, and the preview officially opened in tranquility. The yellow-green banner "London Chinese Art International Exhibition Shanghai Pre-Exhibition" hung above the main entrance of the German Federation on the Bund 23 is particularly striking ... "



Stepping into the gate, the first exhibition room on the first floor exhibited paintings, folding fans, and embroidery of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Along the ladder, there are 5 exhibition areas on the second floor. The second is: Tang, Five Dynasties, Song, and Yuan calligraphy and painting displayed in the second showroom, the bronzes displayed in the third showroom, and the fourth and fifth showrooms Rare books, jade, cloisonne and tick red on display in the Porcelain and the sixth gallery.


在这千余件展品中,信手选出一物,都是稀世珍宝,其中有父辛鬲、饕餮纹簋、宋定窑莹白划文柳编篓瓶、元临川窑牙白镂空龙凤笔筒、唐李照道的“洛阳楼阁图”、宋米芾的“春山瑞松图”、宋徽宗的“池塘晚秋图卷”、元赵孟頫的“重江叠嶂图卷”、明沈周的“庐山高图”、唐寅的“山路松声图”及南宋刻本的乐书、金刻本的《改并五音类聚四声篇》、明洪武年间官刻的《孟子节文》等。


Among the more than a thousand exhibits, Xinshou selected one of them, which is a rare treasure. Among them are the father Xin Xun, the 饕餮 簋 宋, Song Dingyao white-painted wicker basket basket, Yuan Linchuan kiln white hollow dragon and Phoenix pen holder, Tang Luozhao's "Luoyang Tower Map", Song Mizheng's "Spring Mountain Pine Song Map", Song Huizong's "Pond Late Autumn Map Volume", Yuan Zhao Mengfu's "Zhongjiang Overlay Map Volume", Ming and Shen Zhou's "Lushan High Map", Tang Yin "Songsong Sound of Mountain Road" and the music book in the Southern Song Dynasty, the "engraved five-tone polyphonic polyphony" in the gold engraved version, and "Mencius Festival" in the official Hongwu period.


沈周,庐山高图,台北故宫博物院藏 ;唐寅,山路松声图,台北故宫博物院藏 / Shen Zhou, Lushan Height, Collection of Taipei Palace Museum; Tang Yin, the Sound of Tree and Mountain Ways, Collection of Taipei Palace Museum “展览的入场券售价为2元,而当时在上海最高档的电影院,如卡尔登、兰心等,看一场电影才1元,普通影院的票价不过四五角,但出乎主办者意料的是,2元一张的门票却十分畅销…”


申报,详细解释了为什么票价两元定价不高:1. 马戏团有的表演要三元;2.英国伦敦的票价折合人民币二十元左右;3. 展览的筹备花费巨大,不下六、七万元,性价比可谓相当之高。人们为何如此舍得花费高价看这样一场展览?《申报》又继续补充:“往昔在故宫陈列展览时,每人门票须售一元,而复须三日始能走遍故宫各殿,以窥全豹。今则撷其精英,又综合中央研究院、北平图书馆、河南博物院、安徽省立图书馆送会陈列之古物,而得于一日之间,全部浏览之,则不论在时间及金钱上,均经济多多矣。” 

Tickets for the exhibition were priced at 2 yuan. At the time, the most expensive movie theaters in Shanghai, such as Carlton and Lanxin, were only 1 yuan for a movie. What was unexpected was that tickets for 2 yuan were very popular ... "


The newspaper explained in detail why the fare of two yuan is not high: 1. Some circus performances cost three yuan; 2. The fare in London, UK is equivalent to about 20 yuan; 3. The preparation for the exhibition is huge 60,000 to 70,000 yuan, the price is quite high

Why are people so willing to spend such a high price on such an exhibition? "Shenzhen" continued to add: "In the past, when the exhibition was displayed in the Forbidden City, each person had to sell one yuan of tickets, and it took three days to go through the palace halls to get a glimpse of the panther. Today, the elites are collected and the Central Research Institute , Peiping Library, Henan Museum, and Anhui Provincial Library present the antiquities on display at the fair, and you can browse them all in one day, regardless of time and money.

在展览的安全问题上,主办方也是动足了一番脑筋。上海市政府和工部局方面在会场四周设置了铁栅栏、铁丝网,安排警探日夜巡逻。在每件书画展品前都设有木质护栏,以避免人为损坏,同时还在画轴上系以丝带,附着于墙上,防止因画轴过重而累及原作。其他置放展品的橱柜均涂有克罗米,坚固耐火,橱柜上凡是用螺丝钉铆合的地方,皆贴有方形盖印的小封条。

On the issue of security of the exhibition, the organizers also exerted their brains. The Shanghai Municipal Government and the Ministry of Industry Bureau set up iron fences and barbed wire around the venue to arrange police detectives to patrol day and night. There is a wooden fence in front of each painting and calligraphy exhibition to avoid human damage. At the same time, a ribbon is attached to the painting axis to attach it to the wall to prevent the original work from being affected by the painting axis. The other cabinets where the exhibits are placed are all coated with cromi.


但有些观众在会场内一看就是一整天,吃饭成了问题。后经通融,允许观众将所带食品交寄物处存放,到用餐时间,可在一楼的会客室内食用,展会还特地为此类观众准备了免费的清茶,可谓考虑周全。

“预展会着实在上海掀起一股文物热潮。虽然开展以后的几天,天气持续阴霾,可这丝毫没有减退市民参观的热情,德国总会门前依然熙熙攘攘,观者络绎不绝,以至主办方不得不从4月14日起,将每天的参观人数限定在3000人,额满即停止售票,避免过度的拥挤…”


正是冲着这些难得一见的旷世奇珍,不少人觉得参观一次尚不过瘾,接连几日前往,著名书画家叶恭绰就是其中之一;有的在应邀参观后又购票再往观看数次,更有从福建、湖北长途跋涉来沪参观者,足见悠久灿烂的中华文明的巨大吸引力。


Some audiences stay the whole day at the venue, eating therefore became a problem. The committee soon came up with a plan to allow visitors to store their food at locker, It can later be enjoyed at the reception room on the first floor at meal time. The exhibition also specially prepared free tea for such visitors, which can be considered as thoughtful.


"The preview really set off a wave of cultural relics in Shanghai. Although the weather continued to haze for the next few days, this did not diminish the enthusiasm of the citizens to visit. The front of the German General Assembly was still bustling, the audience was endless, and even the organizers I have to limit the number of daily visitors to 3,000 from April 14th, and stop selling tickets when they are full to avoid overcrowding ... "


It is for these rare treasures that many people think that it is not enough to visit once, and they go there several days in a row. The famous book artist Ye Gongchuo is one of them; some people buy tickets after the invitation. Some people revisit the exhibition many times, there were also visitors from Fujian and Hubei who travels to admire the treasure of the magnificent Chinese relics.


申报,在预展期间,许多事宜逐渐明朗,包括对军舰的使用的确认。这不仅仅是英方同意的问题,中方还考虑到了军舰空间和储存问题,遂决定等军舰抵沪后,再由筹备委员会派人检查是否合适文物运输,再做最后定夺


沪上第一大报《申报》从预展开幕前就开始连续报道展览的筹备情况。预展揭幕后,《申报》更是对展览的每日近况进行详细报道,不但分批介绍参展的艺术珍品,刊载各界人士的观后感,还对中国书画艺术等的发展演进过程条分缕析,帮助读者更好地理解展品的价值与内涵。 “《申报》有关预展的报道前后绵延长达一个多月,不曾中断。对一次展览能进行如此长时间、大规模的报道,这在上海新闻史上也是难得一见…”

During the preview period, many issues gradually became clear, including the confirmation of the use of warships. This is not just a matter of British consent. China has also considered the space and storage of warships, and then decided to wait for the warships to arrive in Shanghai, and then the preparatory committee will send someone to check whether the cultural relics are suitable for transportation before making a final decision.


Shanghai's No. 1 newspaper, Shenbao, started to report on the preparations for the exhibition continuously before the pre-opening. After the pre-show was unveiled, the "Report" also provided detailed reports on the daily status of the exhibition. It not only introduced the participating art treasures in batches, included people's views from all walks of life, but also divided and analyzed the development and evolution of Chinese calligraphy and painting art, helping readers Better understand the value and connotation of exhibits.

"Reports on the" Preliminaries "have been extended for more than one month before and after without interruption. It is rare to see such an exhibition for such a long time and large-scale in the history of Shanghai News ..."


“上海预展的成功,另一方面也离不开双方工作人员一丝不苟、专业认真的态度。英国特派专员大维德爵士、Eumorfopoulos、Hobson、Percival Yetts,包括伯希和等专业人士多次来华交流探讨,功不可没…”


此次国宝预展开幕后,上海各大、中学校和社会团体、机构纷纷要求前往参观。据不完全统计,短短2周时间,预展就接待了交通大学、暨南大学、同济大学、上海医学院、上海中学、商务印书馆、湖社等学校、团体不下百个,盛况可谓空前。 "The success of the Shanghai Preview is on the other hand dependent on the meticulous, professional and serious attitude of the staff from both countries. British Special Commissioner Sir Percival David, Eumorfopoulos, Hobson, Percival Yetts, including Percy and other professionals have visited China multiple times for discussions, and it's a big contribution that should not be undermined. "


After the national treasure's pre-opening, major and middle schools in Shanghai, as well as social groups and institutions, have asked to visit. According to statistics, in just 2 weeks, the pre-show hosted more than 100 schools and groups such as Jiaotong University, Jinan University, Tongji University, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai Middle School, Commercial Press, Hushe, etc., and the event was unprecedented.


“随着展览的进行,越来越多的社会知名人士纷至前往参观,其中包括徐悲鸿、胡适及来沪访问的美国教育家孟禄等。不少古玩业内的行家还饶有兴致地给展品估起价来…”


认为就算展品中最次的,其价值也不低于2万元,价值百万以上的则不胜枚举。按照计划,“伦敦中国艺术国际展览会上海预展会”原定于4月30日闭幕,但上海各界对于故宫国宝的热情依然不减,一致请求展览延期。有鉴于此,主办方决议将展期延长5天

许多艺术爱好者纷纷把握最后的机会,仅4月30日的上午9时到10时半,展会就销售门票1000多张,几乎占到了当日限定参观人数的一半,很快出现了一票难求的场面。

"As the exhibition progresses, more and more celebrities came to visit, including Xu Beihong, Hu Shi, and American educator Meng Lu who visited Shanghai. Many experts in the antique industry also shown their interests of participation by giving estimate to exhibits. "


It is believed that even the most common exhibits have a value of not less than 20,000 yuan, and items worth more than one million are literally countless. According to plan, the "London Chinese Art International Exhibition Shanghai Preview" was originally scheduled to close on April 30, but the enthusiasm of all circles in Shanghai for the National Palace National Treasure remained undiminished, and they unanimously requested that the exhibition be postponed. In view of this, the organizer has decided to extend the extension by 5 days.


Many art enthusiasts have seized the last chance. Only from 9 am to 10:30 am on April 30, the exhibition sold more than 1,000 tickets, which almost accounted for half of the limited number of visitors on the day.


5月5日是展览延期的最后一天。这一日正值星期天,人们趁着休息天纷纷赶赴外滩,德国总会门前围得水泄不通。直至日落时分,许多人还在会场内细细品赏,久久不愿离去。就这样,轰动上海滩的故宫国宝珍品展在一片赞誉声中落下帷幕。

“伦敦中国艺术国际展览会上海预展会是上海艺术展览史上一大盛事,展览前后不过28天,观众总数却达五六万之多,若不是组织者特地限止了参观人数,这个数字突破10万应该不在话下…”


May 5th is the last day of the exhibition extension. This day was Sunday, and people rushed to the Bund, the front of the German General Assembly was filled with people. Until sunset, many people were still in the venue, reluctant to leave. In this way of passion, the National Palace Treasures Exhibition that caused a sensation on Shanghai Bund came to an end in a unprecedented high note.


"The London China International Art Fair Shanghai Preview is a major event in the history of Shanghai Art Exhibition. Only 28 days of exhibition, the total number of visitors has reached 50,000 to 60,000. If the organizers had not specifically limited the number of visitors, this number could easily exceed 100,000... "

抵达伦敦

中西方精英全体出动

Arrive in London

Attendance by all Chinese and Western elites


▲ 拆箱过程,图为根津嘉一郎借出之商代武定青铜方盉。日本天皇亦借出藏品一件,英国皇室更是借出了1887年大清皇帝赠与维多利亚女王的青铜器一件



The process of unboxing, the picture shows the Shang Dynasty Wuding bronze square hé lent by Kazuhiro Nezu. The Japanese emperor also lent a piece; the British royal family lent a bronze ware given to Queen Victoria by the Qing Emperor in 1887.


汇聚东西方的史诗级展览

an Epic Exhibition

▲ 展览入口,正对着就是卢芹斋借展的隋代白石大佛,现藏大英博物馆 / The entrance to the exhibition is directly opposite the Sui Dynasty White Stone Buddha borrowed by Lu Qinzhai, now in the British Museum



这次展览多达3080个展品,分布在Burlington House的16个不同的展厅。很值得注意的是这个展览的Floor Plan,整个布局采用了年代的次序:从商代、春秋战国、唐、宋、元,明,清代… 对不同年代有不同的侧重。

There are up to 3,080 exhibits in 16 different exhibition halls in Burlington House. It is worth noting that the floor plan of this exhibition adopts the order of the times: from the Shang Dynasty, the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties ... with different emphasis on different eras.


“伦敦展览会策展之敏感以及非凡的品味,可以完全从展厅的安排中体现出来,商代、春秋战国、北魏和唐代雕塑各占一个展厅,宋代部分占据了整整4个展厅:高古艺术在当时一流的藏家、学者、先驱心中的比重与位置一目了然。”


"The sensitive and extraordinary taste of curating the London exhibition can be fully reflected in the arrangement of the exhibition halls. The sculptures of the Shang Dynasty, the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Period, the Northern Wei Dynasty and the Tang Dynasty each occupied one exhibition hall, and the Song Dynasty partially occupied a whole four exhibition halls. The proportion and position of art in the hearts of first-class collectors, scholars, and pioneers at that time were clear at a glance. "


青铜器展品 / Bronze Exhibits


▲ 乳钉纹青铜簋,西周早中期,1935年伦敦艺术展编号214,Lent by Madame Wannieck Paris,从1930年开始至2013年共有约12次著录,随后进入玫茵堂珍藏,铭文“X父辛”。/ Western Zhou, ex-Meiyintang Collection Bronze GUI.

▲ 端方青铜系列,大都会博物馆1924年购藏

▲ 根津美术馆,商代武定,左、中、右方盉;双羊尊,ex-eumorfopoulos,大英博物馆藏; 商後期,亞醜諸女司方尊,台北故宫博物院藏; 西周中期,服方尊,台北故宫博物院藏 / 腹足方而口圆,颈上饰仰叶夔纹及象纹,腹饰兽面纹及夔纹,足饰鸟纹,腹前后各有三棱。


Genjin Art Museum, Wuding, Shang Dynasty, left, middle, and right; double sheep statues, ex-eumorfopoulos, British Museum collection; late Shang dynasty, Asian and Ugly girls Si Fangzun, Taipei Palace Museum collection; mid Western Zhou Dynasty, service Zun, Collection of the Taipei Palace Museum / The belly and feet are square and round, the neck is adorned with yangye patterns and elephant patterns, the belly is decorated with animal patterns and ridge patterns, and the feet are decorated with bird patterns.


▲ 商後期,鉤連乳丁紋羊首罍; 商末周初,亞醜方簋,故宫博物院藏;戰國中期,陳侯午簋,台北故宫博物院藏; 商後期,鴞首獸面紋方罍,台北故宫博物院;戰國中期,嵌孔雀石綠松石犧尊; 戰國早期,鳥首獸尊,台北故宫博物院藏; Ex-Eumorfopoulos 鸮卣


雕塑精选 / Sculpture Exhibits


▲ 大都会博物馆藏;巴黎吉美国立亚洲艺术博物馆藏;大都会博物馆藏;弗里尔博物馆藏;天龙山主佛,唐代,哈佛大学艺术博物馆; 天龙山菩萨,唐代,纳尔逊阿特金斯博物馆藏;天龙山菩萨,唐代,瑞士苏黎世Rietberg Museum藏; 龙门飞天,震旦博物馆藏; 波士顿博物馆藏狮子;宾夕法尼亚大学博物馆藏狮子


陶瓷精选 / Ceramic Exhibits

在这次伦敦中国艺术国际展览会(伯灵顿府)期间,助理干事傅振伦积极参与,护送文物前往伦敦,并作出了详细的笔记记录。其间,他也多次考察大英博物馆,并撰文记述了该馆所藏部分中国陶瓷(大概有一半的Eumorfopoulos藏品现藏于大英博物馆)。

▲  大英博物馆,刘庭训墓三彩系列;British Museum, Liu Tingxun's Tomb Tricolor Series, ex-Eumorfopoulos


傅振伦在展厅中看到了上文提起的刘庭训三彩俑,写道:“亚洲厅又有唐庭训(译音,卒开元十六年)墓之三角(彩)釉土俑数事。” 他还谈到乔治·尤摩弗帕勒斯的个人收藏。“猷(尤)氏犹太裔英国籍。雄于资,收藏中国古器物甚多……其展览于此院者,在入门大厅、亚洲厅及绘画室。周代铜器,玉器,唐铜镜,陶瓷于(与)刘庭训(译音)Liu Ting-hsüen(开元十六年卒)墓陶俑,……均可贵。


In the exhibition hall, Fu Zhenlun (the Exhibition Assitant from China) saw the three-color figurine of Liu Tingxun mentioned above, and wrote: "In the Asian hall, there are several things about the Sancai glazed clay figurine of the tomb of Tang Dynasty Tingxun. He also mentioned Personal collection of George Eumorfopoulos. "Jew (You) Jewish-British nationality. He is a man of wealth and has a large collection of Chinese ancient artifacts ... he exhibited here in the entrance hall, Asian hall and painting room. Bronze, jade, and Tang bronze mirrors of the Zhou Dynasty , Ceramics in (and) Liu Ting-hsüen (died in the sixteenth year of the Kaiyuan) tomb pottery figurines ...



▲ 汝窑椭圆洗,大维德基金会藏;汝窑葵口盏托,大维德基金会藏;南宋官窑梅瓶,Ex-Eumorfopoulos,大英博物馆藏;南宋官窑直颈瓶,Ex-Eumorfopoulos,大英博物馆藏;南宋官窑胆式瓶,大维德基金会藏,此瓶为大维德爵士借出藏品中最喜欢的一件,是1935年12月Burlington Magazine的彩页;南宋官窑洗,大维德基金会藏;南宋官窑八卦炉,大维德基金会藏; 北宋早期,定窑牡丹花卉梅瓶,大阪东洋藏,安宅英一旧藏; 宋定窑萱草牡丹纸槌瓶,大维德基金会藏; 南宋龙泉窑鱼耳瓶,Sir Alan Barlow旧藏;南宋龙泉窑折沿洗,大维德基金会藏; 南宋龙泉窑斗笠盏,Sir Alan Barlow旧藏,牛津大学阿什莫林博物馆藏; 耀州窑胆瓶,Ex-Eumorfopoulos,维多利亚阿尔伯特博物馆藏; 耀州窑净瓶,Ex-Pilkington,苏富比2016年548万港币

结语 Conclusion


“1935年的伦敦中国艺术国际展览会,是20世纪中国艺术在国际上文化交流的一次巅峰之作。其规模之庞大,参与之政治、文化及各界精英人士之众,其对学术的包容性、学术机构藏家与经销商的重视程度,都在一个近乎完美的状态,给世界带来无比的震撼…”

"The International Exhibition of Chinese Art in London in 1935 was a pinnacle of international cultural exchanges of Chinese art in the 20th century. Its huge scale, participation in politics, culture and elites from all walks of life, its academic tolerance , The degree of attention of academic institutions, collectors and dealers, are in a near-perfect state, bringing an incredible shock to the world ... "


伦敦中国艺术展览,不仅仅是真正意义上的“传承”(Provenance)更是传承中的传承!这个伟大的展览无疑为参展的器物赋予了最耀眼的光环,也同时给两国的人民留下了人性的光辉与不可复制的传奇经历。


“时光仿佛回到1936年的归途,云破天开,刚摆脱搁浅困境的OSS.Ranpura蓝浦拉号,带着将近1000件国宝文物凯旋归来。这是一次伟大的旅程,也是中国古代文明给世界的最坚定之宣言…”


The Chinese Art Exhibition in London is not only a “Provenance” in the true sense, it is also the provenance of provenance. This great exhibition will undoubtedly give the exhibiting utensils the most dazzling halo, and at the same time leave the glorious humanity and legendary experience of the people of both countries.


"Time seems to return to the way back in 1936, the sky is breaking, and the OSS. Ranpura, which has just emerged from the stranded predicament, returns triumphantly with nearly 1,000 national treasures and cultural relics. This is a great journey, a manifesto of ancient Chinese Civilization to the western world... "

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