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唐代筆記 vol.5 海棠盃與唐代長沙窯的美意識 - The Lobed Cup and Aesthetics of Tang Dynasty Changsha Kiln



東漢 鸚鵡陶盃 湖南博物院藏

Figure 1. Left, Sasanian product . Right,  Green glass lobed-cup, Sasanian, 7th century A.D. 

Figure 2. Lobed silver cups, Sasanian, 7th century A.D. [19]

Figure 3. Tang dynasty, 9th cent. A.D.

Figure 4. Left, Lobed elliptical silver footed dish, late Tang dynasty, 8th-9th century A.D., Right, ware lobed elliptical cup, excavated from the tomb of Qian Kuan dated to 900 A.D. 

Figure 5. Changsha kiln products 


The lobed shape cup is an engaging variation that appears and becomes popular in the arts and crafts of China, among the artworks some of the items are most noteworthy morphologically which are lobed products in figures 3, 4 & 5.

Most of these eastern earthenware and metal utensils are from Tang dynasty; however, the distinctive vessels inspired from Sasanian and early post-Sasanian Persian products (Figures 1 & 2). The silver vessel (figure 2) as well as glassware of similar form (figure 1. Right), are during the Han dynasty which from the Persian Empire had reached China, a trickle that turned into a greater stream feeding the Tang Empire, which is still an important indication of the intercultural communication between East and Persia. Regarding to this communication F. H. Schafer says:

以上銀器和類似形式的玻璃器皿的根源可以追溯到漢代,它們從波斯帝國傳入中國,從涓涓細流到大唐帝國,這仍然是東方和波斯之間文化交流的重要標誌。關於這種交流,F. H. Schafer 說道:

"......中國的大部分海外貿易是通過中國南海和印度洋進行的。從七世紀到九世紀,印度洋是一個安全而富饒的海洋,各國船隻來往不絕......遷都到波斯灣首的巴格達後,東方貿易大為繁榮。阿拉伯城市巴士拉是離巴格達最近的港口,但最大的船隻無法抵達。巴士拉下面,波斯灣的源頭是烏布拉,它是波斯帝國的一個古老港口。但最富庶的是設拉子下面波斯灣波斯一側的西拉夫(Siraf)。這座城市的繁榮全靠東方貿易,它一直主宰著波斯灣,直到 977 年被地震摧毀。

 “ … Most of China’s overseas trade was through the south China Sea and Indian Ocean. From the seventh to the ninth century, the Indian Ocean was a safe and rich ocean, thronged with ships of every nationality… capital was moved to Baghdad at the head of the Persian Gulf, the eastern trade flourished greatly. Basra, an Arab city, was the port nearest to Baghdad, but it could not be reached by the largest ships. Below Basra, at the head of the Persian Gulf, was Ubullah, an old port of the Persian side of the Empire. But richest of all was Siraf, on the Persian side of the Persian Gulf below Shiraz. This town owed all its prosperity to the Eastern trade, and it dominated the Gulf until destroyed by an earthquake in 977. Its inhabitants were Persians in the main … The decline of Siraf was a disaster for the trade with the Far East …

From these ports, then, the ships of many nations set sail, manned by Persian-speaking crews –for Persian was the lingua franca of the Southern Seas, as Sogdian was the lingua franca of the roads of Central Asia. They stopped at Muscat in Oman … may be  they risked the coastal ports of Sind haunted by pirates, or else proceeded directly to Malabar and thence to Ceylon … where they purchased Gems. From here the route was eastward to the Nicobars … then they made land on the Malay Peninsula … hence they cruised the Strait of Malacca towards the lands of gold … finally they turned north … to trade for silk damasks in Hanoi or Canton or even farther north.

The sea-going merchantmen which thronged the ports of China in Tang times were called by the Chinese, who were astonished at their size, (Argosies of the South Seas) … and especially (Persian Argosies) … the great ocean-going ships of China appear some centuries later, in Sung, Yuan and early Ming … when the Arab writers of the ninth and tenth centuries tell of Chinese vessels in the harbors of the Persian Gulf, they mean, ships engaged in the China trade…



......中國的資料顯示,從事這一豐富貿易的最大船隻來自錫蘭。它們有 200 英尺長,載有六七百人。其中許多船隻拖著救生艇,並配備了尋家鴿。在波斯灣建造的單桅三角帆船較小,由乳膠帆船組成。

… Chinese sources say the largest ships engaged in this rich trade came from Ceylon. They were 200 feet long and carried six or seven hundred men. Many of them towed lifeboats and were equipped with homing pigeons. The dhows built in the Persian Gulf were smaller, lateen-rigged.

(Canton was then the frontier town, during Tang a truly Chinese city) in the estuary before this colorful and insubstantial town were… the argosies of the Brahmans, the Persians and the Malays, their number beyond reckoning, all laden with aromatics, drugs and rare and precious things, their cargoes heaped like hills.

The Chinese taste for the exotic permeated every social class and every part of daily life: Persian, Indian and Turkish figures and decorations appeared on every kind of household objects. The vogue for foreign clothes, foreign food and foreign music was especially prevalent in the eighth century, but no part of Tang era was free from it.

Other exotic fashions of mid-Tang were leopard skin hats, worn by men, tight sleeves and fitted bodices in the Persian styles, worn by women along with pleated skirts and long stoles draped around the neck and even hair-styles and makeup of Un-Chinese character.

Dates had long been known as a Persian products and in Tang (‘s period) were actually imported.


中國人對異國情調的喜好滲透到每個社會階層和日常生活的方方面面: 波斯、印度和土耳其的人物和裝飾品出現在各種生活用品上。對外國服裝、外國食物和外國音樂的追捧在八世紀尤為盛行,但唐代的任何地方都沒有擺脫這種風氣。





伊斯蘭教征服波斯後的頭三百年,中國在唐朝(618-905 年)達到了新的高度。中國尤其是江南地區的商業得到改善,詩歌和繪畫發展出新的模式,紙張、陶器、印刷術和茶葉被發現,學術機構得到牢固確立,直到 1912 年幾乎保持不變,(例如,作為中國最負盛名的四大書院之一,岳麓書院是一所著名的高等學府,也是學術活動的中心).

波斯繼續與中國保持關係。唐朝時,在中國西北部的主要貿易中心形成了講波斯語的商人社區,被稱為 "胡人"(Húrén)。中國元朝招募了大量中亞和波斯士兵、專家和工匠。其中一些被稱為 "色目人"(Sèmù rén)的人在元朝政府中擔任重要官職。


Despite the excellence of the Tang textile industry or perhaps because of it … many clothes of foreign make were imported… therefore, the handsome Tang fabrics preserved in the Shosoin and Horyuji at Nara in Japan and the almost identical ones found near Turfan in Central Asia, display the popular images , design and symbols of Sasanian Persia…” .

In the first three hundred years after the Islamic conquest of Persia, China reached new heights under the Tang dynasty (618-905). Chinese improved commerce specially in the southern part of China, new patterns developed in poetry and painting, paper, potteries, printing and tea were discovered and academic  institutions became so firmly established that they remained almost unchanged until 1912, (for example, As one of the four most prestigious academies in China, Yuelu Academy is a famous institution of higher learning as well as a centre of academic activities and upholding cultures since it was formally set up in the ninth year of the Kai Bao Reign of the Northern Song Dynasty (976). Yuelu Academy, surviving the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, was converted into Hunan University in 1926).

Persia continued their relations with China. During the Tang Dynasty, communities of Persian-speaking merchants, known as Húrén(胡人), formed in northwestern China’s major trade centers. A large number of Central Asian and Persian soldiers, experts, and artisans were recruited by the Yuan Dynasty of China. Some of them, known as Sèmù rén (色目人) occupied important official posts in the Yuan Dynasty administration .

Therefore contribution of Persian and Chinese designers to a wide range of art, design and commerce disciplines is often overlooked. This paper provides a glimpse of the rich cultural heritage within the Persians and Chinese with significant role of both cultures that have played in the advancement of products.

湖南省博物館藏,長沙窯海棠盃,高5.9釐米,口徑13.2釐米×8.1釐米,足徑5.2釐米 長沙窯窯址出土 湖南省博物館藏 其器形平面近似橢圓,海棠花式敞口,弧腹下收,喇叭形圈足。杯心壓印盛開的蓮花紋。長沙窯生產的海棠杯數量不少,絕大多數壓印蓮花紋,也有光素無紋者,釉色有青釉、醬釉、乳濁白釉、先施青釉再罩醬釉的復釉。















1、 褐釉印花雲雁紋碟


2、 印花蓮紋花形碟


3、 綠釉印花菠蘿紋三角形碟


4、 醬釉印花如意花紋花形碟


5、 醬釉印花鸚鵡銜綬紋花形碟


6、 醬釉印花蓮紋花形碟




左圖法門寺折枝紋葵花形銀盤 右圖唐繁峙多曲銀碗



上海博物館珍藏 長沙窯

青釉褐彩力士圖盤 時代: 唐 尺寸: 高4釐米,口徑22.5釐米,底徑14釐米 材質: 瓷 產地: 長沙窯 來源: 李雪萊、林嗣淇捐贈

長沙窯白釉褐綠彩鉢 時代: 唐 尺寸: 高4.0釐米,口徑12.5釐米,足徑4.8釐米

長沙窯外青釉內醬釉模印花卉紋花口盞托 時代: 唐 尺寸: 高2.7釐米,口15.5 × 12.5釐米,足7.5 × 5.7釐米

綠釉模印花卉紋花口盤 時代: 唐 尺寸: 高3.5釐米,口長18.5釐米,底長7.9釐米 材質: 瓷 產地: 長沙窯 來源: 李雪萊、林嗣淇捐贈

長沙窯青釉褐藍彩花卉紋執壺 時代: 唐 尺寸: 高20.0釐米,口徑5.0釐米,足徑7.7釐米


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