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隋代筆記 vol.2 湘陰窯青釉鸚鵡盃,胡惠春舊藏、上海博物館珍藏與4000人民幣鸚鵡盃 - Sui Notes, An Important Green Glazed Parrot Cup from the ex-Jen-mou H. C. Hu Collection.



上海博物館東館,新增展出了100余件新展品,其中這件隋代的湘陰窯鸚鵡杯造型精美引起關注,這件珍品曾屬暫得樓胡惠春舊藏,2021年由范季融捐贈給了上博,這件杯子從末公開露面,僅在1950年,仇焱之和Helen DLing為胡惠春編撰的《暫得樓珍藏歷代名瓷影譜》書中收錄。


上海博物館資料顯示,這是湘陰窯的精品。鸚鵡神情嚴肅地坐在類似泡澡的木桶中,呆若木雞,有十分卡通又扣人心弦的動感。


木雞,木頭製成的雞,任何情況下皆紋風不動,比喻修養深厚、態度沈穩。語本《莊子.達生》。

《莊子.達生》 紀渻子為王養鬥雞。十日而問:「雞已乎?」曰:「未也,方虛憍而恃氣。」十日又問,曰:「未也,猶應向景。」十日又問,曰:「未也,猶疾視而盛氣。」十日又問,曰:「幾矣,雞雖有鳴者,已無變矣,望之似木雞矣,其德全矣。異雞無敢應者,反走矣。」

「呆若木雞」的「木雞」指木制的雞,見於《莊子.達生》中,原是用來比喻訓練有素的鬥雞,在任何情況下都十分沈著,紋風不動。鬥雞,是一種使雞相鬥以決勝負的遊戲。

從前有個叫紀渻子的人為齊王馴養這種戰鬥用雞,十天後齊王問:「可以了嗎?」他回答道:「還不行!牠看來還是很驕傲,很容易衝動。」又過了十天,齊王再度詢問,他仍說:「還是不行!別的雞鳴叫,牠就跟著叫,不夠沈著。」再過十天,齊王再問,他又說:「還是不行!牠的氣勢還太旺盛。」

終於在十天後,齊王再問時,他說:「可以了!牠現在對於其他同伴的鳴叫毫無反應,沈穩的態度使牠外表看來像是只木制的雞,可說是已具備了完善的戰鬥力。

我想別的雞只要看到牠的樣子,一定不敢應戰,轉身就跑。」後來,這只雞果然百戰百勝。莊子的這則故事里,其實是以那只看似「木雞」的鬥雞來比喻人學養高深,態度穩重,從而故有「木雞養到」之語。

古董收藏,本應「呆若木雞」,對沒有受過訓練的雞的鳴叫視而不見。



The East Wing of the Shanghai Museum has added more than 100 new exhibits to its collection, including this beautifully modelled parrot cup from Xiangyin kiln of the Sui dynasty, which was once part of Jen-mou H. C. Hu collection of the Zandelou (meaning Temporarily Acquired House), and was donated to the Shanghai Museum by Fan Jirong in 2021. The cup has never appeared on the market over the last 50 years, and is only included in the publication by Edward T. Chow and Helen D.Ling for Jen-mou H. C. Hu in 1950.


According to the Shanghai Museum, this is a fine example from the Xiangyin kiln. The parrots sitting solemnly in a barrel that looks like a bath have a very cartoonish and heart-warming movement.


暫得樓珍藏歷代名瓷影譜


尺寸:高8.4厘米,长径12.7厘米,短径10.5厘米


隋代以後的盛唐,鸚鵡也是中國三彩藝術的重要母題,比如上海博物館珍藏的唐彩色釉陶托鸚鵡女俑;宋代的時候,以宋徽宗為代表的五色鸚鵡圖;清代華喦的鸚鵡圖軸等等⋯⋯

During the Sui and Tang dynasties, parrots were also an important motif in Chinese three-colour art, as evidenced by the colour-glazed ceramic figurines of parrots in the Shanghai Museum, the five-coloured parrots of Emperor Huizong in the Song dynasty, and the parrot scrolls of Hua Yan in the Qing dynasty...


唐彩色釉陶托鸚鵡女俑,連座高38.7釐米,上海博物館藏


宋徽宗,五色鸚鵡圖,美國波士頓美術博物館。


華喦 鸚鵡圖軸,尺寸: 纵131.0厘米,横63.4厘米。


華喦(1682-1756),字秋岳,號新羅山入,福建上杭人,僑寓揚州,工詩善畫,尤精花鳥,取法惲壽平,饒得生趣。此圖畫一隻綠鸚鵡立於枝頭,其下襯以竹石。樹枝與竹石十分寫意,不過寥寥數筆,尤其是竹石,不用墨筆為底,直接以色彩點厾,是沒骨的畫法。


與簡潔的襯景形成對比,鸚鵡描繪得十分精細,其圓潤的體態,蓬松鮮艷的羽毛,都被作者以松秀輕靈的筆觸表現出來,造型與筆墨的調和達到了水乳交融的高超境界。


4000元人民幣 鸚鵡盃


落槌價420歐元,造型類似,體量較小,出自愛爾蘭小拍,與上海博物館的造型相去甚遠。相信應該是被古董商買下後進行跨市場套利,近期這類作品火熱。




Bonhams 鸚鵡盃


2020年Bonhams賣出了一隻類似的鸚鵡盃,價格是93812歐元。



Lot 14. A rare ochre glazed 'Parrot' cup, Tang Dynasty (618-907). 13cm (5 1/8in) long. Estimate £ 30,000 - £ 50,000. Sold for £ 93,812 (€ 103,740). Courtesy Bonhams.


Of shallow oval form, one end formed as a parrot lying on its back, the finely incised tail and wing feathers fanning out to form the cup, the head with large curling beak between sharp piercing eyes, all covered in a warm yellow-ochre glaze, stand.


第 14 號拍賣品 罕見的赭色釉 "鸚鵡 "杯,唐代(618-907 年)。長 13 釐米(5 1/8 英吋)。估價 30,000 - 50,000 英鎊。成交價 93,812 英鎊(103,740 歐元)。邦瀚斯拍賣行提供。

淺橢圓形,一端形成一隻仰臥的鸚鵡,精雕細刻的尾部和翼羽扇形形成杯狀,頭部有捲曲的大喙,位於銳利的刺眼之間,通體施溫暖的黃赭釉,立式。


Provenance: Berwald Oriental Art, LondonProfessor Conrad Harris, UK, purchased on 20 February 2003 from the above.


PublishedBerwald Oriental Art Facing East, Expressions in Chinese Art, London, no.16.


The result of Oxford Authentication Ltd. thermoluminescence test no.C101u72, dated 31 August 2001, is consistent with the dating of this lot.


出處:Berwald Oriental Art, London 伯瓦爾德東方藝術博物館,倫敦英國康拉德-哈里斯教授,2003 年 2 月 20 日購自上述博物館。

已出版: Berwald Oriental Art Facing East, Expressions in Chinese Art, London, no.16.

牛津鑒定有限公司2001年8月31日編號為C101u72的熱釋光測試結果與本拍賣品的年代一致。


Note: Conrad Harris became interested in Chinese pottery in the late 1990s, around the time he retired as Professor of General Practice at Leeds University. Having moved on from a career in medical academia, he took an academic approach to learning about the styles and artefacts of different periods - from the Neolithic to the great dynasties of China. Harris was a highly erudite collector, who travelled extensively in China, pursuing his interest in ancient pottery wares through many provincial museums.


He gave regular lectures and, in 2002, gained a Diploma in Asian Art from the British Museum. He was an active member of the Oriental Ceramic Society and, in the 2003/04 Oriental Ceramic Society Transactions, he contributed the lecture 'Chinese ceramic horses and how they changed'. Most importantly, he gained immense pleasure from seeing his collection take pride of place on the shelves all around his study.


20 世紀 90 年代末,康拉德-哈里斯對中國陶器產生了濃厚的興趣,當時他正從利茲大學全科醫學教授的職位上退休。從醫學學術界轉行後,他以學術的方式學習不同時期的風格和器物--從新石器時代到中國的偉大王朝。哈里斯是一位博學多才的收藏家,他在中國遊歷廣泛,通過許多省級博物館追尋他對古代陶器的興趣。

 

他定期舉辦講座,並於 2002 年獲得大英博物館頒發的亞洲藝術文憑。他是東方陶瓷學會的活躍成員,在 2003/2004 年東方陶瓷學會期刊上,他發表了題為 "中國陶馬及其變化 "的演講。最重要的是,看到自己的藏品在書房四周的書架上傲視群雄,他感到無比欣慰。


早在隋朝,薛道衡的一首诗中就提到了  "鹦鹉杯":

共酌瓊酥酒,同斟鸚鵡杯。


唐朝骆宾王的诗中也有提到:

鳳凰樓上罷吹簫,鸚鵡杯中休勸酒。


The term yingwu bei, literally 'parrot cup', is first mentioned as early as the Sui dynasty, in a poem by Xue Daoheng:


'Together pour the fine buttery wine; together tip the parrot cup'


共酌瓊酥酒,同傾鸚鵡杯。


And it occurs again in a Tang poem by Luo Binwang:


'The playing of flutes on the Phoenix Tower has ceased, the urgings to drink wine from the parrot cup has stopped.


'鳳凰樓上罷吹簫,鸚鵡杯中休勸酒。



The contemporary dictionary interpretation of the term 'parrot cup', which comes from a Tang source, is that it is a cup made from yingwu luo 'parrot snail', meaning perhaps a nautilus shell, named for its supposed resemblance to a parrot. As the exterior form of this cup resembles the shape and size of a nautilus shell, but the piece is fashioned from a representation of a parrot, cups such as this may have been produced as an amusing play on words.


Although the parrot was a bird native to southern China, those most admired in the Tang court were the more colourful ones imported from South-East Asia. The later Tang emperor Taizong (r.627-649) commissioned a rhapsody poem to be written about a prized parrot that was a gift from the kingdom of Champa. Furthermore, the Tang emperor Xuanzong (r.712-756) adopted a talking parrot as a pet.


Compare with a similar cup, but covered in a white glaze, Tang dynasty, which was exhibited in the Tokyo National Museum, Special Exhibition of Chinese Ceramics', Tokyo, 1994, pl.136.See also a Xingyao white glazed 'parrot cup', Tang dynasty/ Five dynasties, which was sold at Bonhams Hong Kong, 9 October 2014, lot 140.


"鸚鵡杯" 一詞源於唐代,當代字典對該詞的解釋是:"鸚鵡杯 "是用英武螺 "鸚鵡螺 "製成的杯子,意思可能是鸚鵡螺,因其外形酷似鸚鵡而得名。由於此杯的外觀形狀和大小與鸚鵡螺相似,但其造型卻是鸚鵡的形象,因此製作這種杯子可能是一種有趣的文字遊戲。

雖然鸚鵡是一種原產於中國南方的鳥類,但在唐代宮廷中最受人喜愛的是從東南亞進口的色彩更為艷麗的鸚鵡。後來的唐太宗(627-649 年)曾命人為佔婆國贈送的一隻珍貴鸚鵡寫了一首頌歌。此外,唐玄宗(712-756 年)還收養了一隻會說話的鸚鵡作為寵物。類似的唐代白釉杯曾在東京國立博物館的 "中國陶瓷特展 "中展出,東京,1994 年,圖 136。另見一件邢窯白釉 "鸚鵡杯",唐代/五代,香港邦瀚斯拍賣行,2014 年 10 月 9 日,拍得編號 140。


Bonhams. Fine Chinese Art, London, 5 Nov 2020


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