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收藏入門 vol.1 佳士得宋瓷收藏指南 - Christie's Collecting guide on Song ceramics.



宋瓷收藏

此文由佳士得專家爲您介紹宋代瓷器,其器型清晰簡潔,色調素雅柔和,明明是古董珍品卻極具現代感,令人嘖嘖稱奇。同时賞析佳士得呈献的拍品。


Collecting guide: Song ceramics

An expert guide to Song ceramics, whose clarity of form and subdued palette suggests a modernity at odds with their antiquity. Illustrated with examples offered at Christie’s

*** 本文版權歸佳士得所有,不代表SACA學會觀點 / Copyright Christie's, this article does not represent the views of SACA.


宋代瓷器供宮廷、宗教和日常使用,造型多樣,簡單但精緻。這些瓷器以細膩的單色釉料而聞名,由乳白色、淡綠色、天藍色到濃烈的煙黑色,釉色各有千秋。數百年來一直受到學者、收藏家和藝術家密切研究和模仿。時至21世紀,宋瓷散發出的現代風韻依然歷久不衰。


了解五大名窯:汝窯、官窯、哥窯、定窯和鈞窯

一件宋瓷的價值,首先看它原產的窯爐。最珍貴和最有價值的瓷器定必來自宋代五大窯爐,分別爲汝窯、官窯、哥窯、定窯和鈞窯。這些窯爐嚴格監管瓷器的製造,對於誰可以擁有或使用這些瓷器,有著嚴格規定。不完美的作品會被銷毀,以防止它們流通市面。



宋 鈞窯青釉雞心罐。高9.2公分(3⅝英寸)。此拍品於2023年5月30日佳士得香港售出,成交價478,800港元,John Sparks,倫敦,1950年3月31日 (圖一) 雷金納德暨莉娜.帕默伉儷珍藏,編號654


於五大名窯中,以汝窯出產的宋瓷最罕有。目前已知的私人珍藏及博物館藏只有約70件汝窯宋瓷,同類珍品在市場上難得一見,因此拍賣成交價往往高達數百萬元。


幸好,古人在日常生活中亦會使用優質瓷器,文人雅士及名門望族就是首批宋瓷藏家。收集這些精美的陶瓷花瓶及其他器皿非常流行,被視為文化修養的象徵。


流傳至今的龍泉、耀州窯及磁州窯製瓷器是最佳例子,廣受藏家追捧。它們較著重花巧設計,當中以龍泉青瓷在市場上尤其受歡迎。


研究外型與底部

除了產地之外,宋代瓷器亦以其優雅的比例和造型而著稱。每個窯場都有自家專門生產的釉料,而這些釉料會用在特定造型的瓷器上。要分辨它們頗具難度,尤其因無論是在生產當時或是在歷史後期,這些瓷器都有大量複製品。窯場、釉料和瓷器的形狀都密切相關,如果一件作品的釉料與造型不符,那代表它很可能是贗品。


雖然您可從書籍和線上數據庫查看宋代陶瓷的圖片,但沒什麼比親身研究實物更能訓練慧眼,因此參觀世界各地的優秀藏品是最佳的學習方法。例如大英博物館的斐西瓦乐·大维德爵士收藏匯聚大量瓷器精品,按釉色排列。


博物館是訓練慧眼的最佳地點。台北國立故宮博物院擁有21件汝窯瓷器,是全球規模最大的汝窯珍藏。而日本大阪市立東洋陶瓷美術館則藏有多件龍泉青瓷。


留意工匠留下的痕跡

近距離欣賞古董珍品的好處之一,是能查看工匠無意間留下的痕跡。某類宋瓷,尤其是定窯的出品,經常有工匠留下的痕跡,有助辨別瓷器的真偽。



肯禮夫勳爵、臨宇山人舊藏 南宋 龍泉官米色弦紋奩式爐,此拍品於2023年11月30日佳士得香港售出,成交價1,890,000港元


例如,在查看定窯器物時,可留意足口周圍有沒有指甲印​​痕。這些痕跡是工匠人手將器物浸入釉料時留下的。


好好保護珍藏

瓷器不是有機物質,因此宋瓷藏家毋須擔心四周的溫度及濕度會破壞瓷器。不過,瓷器是易碎品,所以用玻璃保護是最安全理想的做法。


瓷器年代久遠,完好無損的作品非常罕見,不少瓷器也經過修復。事實上,許多宋代瓷器都是用一種名爲金繼的日本鎏金漆技術所修復的。這種技術旨在頌揚作品的獨特歷史,而非遮掩其缺陷。藏家可能會發現藏品的品質會隨時間轉差,在此情況下,應進行專業的修復工序。現時有很多新科技和物料,只要選對修復者,修復效果會非常理想。


臨宇山人 北宋/金 黑釉堆條紋雙繫罐,此拍品於2016年9月15日佳士得紐約售出,成交價81,250美金


不要因高價而卻步

宋代瓷器的數量稀少,因此備受推崇。然而,新藏家不應被汝瓷的數百萬美元成交價格嚇跑。市面上仍然有許多保存完整的宋代瓷器,價值數千美元,相對實惠。此類別在拍賣會上的成交價各不相同,取決於瓷器本身的質素、釉面和稀有性等因素。


亞歷山大舊藏 北宋晚期/金早期 定窯刻蓮紋大盌,此拍品於2020年11月30日佳士得香港售出,成交價27,850,000港元


Song ceramics, made in a variety of shapes for imperial, religious and daily use, are distinguished by simple yet sophisticated shapes and forms. Renowned for their subtle monochrome glazes — tones can vary from milky white to pale green, sky blue to intense smoky black — the porcelain vessels have been closely studied and imitated through centuries by scholars, collectors and other artists. In the 21st century, their strikingly modern aesthetic endures.


Know your Song kilns: Ru, Guan, Ge, Ding and Jun

The value of a Song ceramic is first based on the kiln where it was originally made. The most precious and highly valued objects come from one of five kilns — Ru, Guan, Ge, Ding, Jun. Production in the kilns was heavily monitored. There were very strict regulations for who could possess or use these wares; imperfect pieces were destroyed to keep them from ever being circulated.



Of these five kilns, Ru ware is the most rare. Today, there are only around 70 pieces of known Ru ware in private collections and museums — and it very rarely appears on the market. Needless to say, such pieces usually sell at auction for many millions of dollars.

Fortunately, high-quality ceramics were also made for daily use. Scholars and prominent families were the first collectors of such objects. It was considered fashionable and was a reflection of your cultural sophistication to acquire these beautifully potted vases and other vessels.


More examples of these pieces, which were made in cities such as Longquan, Yaozhou and Cizhou, remain today, and are eagerly sought by collectors. They are generally marked by slightly more ornate designs. Longquan celadons, in particular, are popular on the market.


Study Song forms and bases

Beyond where it was made, what marks a Song ceramic is its elegant proportions and form. Each kiln specialised in specific glazes which are associated with particular forms that can be difficult to spot, especially considering that so many copies were made of the pieces, not only later in history, but also during the same period. There exists a vocabulary of kiln, glaze-type and form. If the glaze-type does not match the form, then this is a big red flag.



While looking at images of Song ceramics in books and online databases is helpful, nothing trains the eye like studying them in person. For this, nothing is better than visiting a number of exemplary collections around the world.The Sir Percival David collection at the British Museum, for example, has an encyclopaedic collection arranged by glaze colours.


Museums are excellent resources. The National Palace Museum in Taipei has 21 pieces of Ru ware — the largest collection of such precious objects in the world. And finally, the Museums of Oriental Ceramics in Osaka, Japan, has an extensive collection of Longquan celadons.



Look for markings made by Song artisans

One of the most wonderful things about looking closely at an ancient object is being able to see the unintentional marks left behind by the artisan. For certain types of Song wares, particularly in reference to Ding wares, it is common to see traces of the artisan’s markings. These markings are a good indication of authenticity.


When examining a vessel from the Ding kiln, for example, look for traces of fingernail impressions around the foot rim. They were left by artisans who hand-dipped the objects into glazes.


Restoration and condition

Given that porcelain is not an organic material, collectors of Song ceramics don’t have to worry about the temperature and humidity of the room in which they display their objects. However the pieces are fragile, which means that shielding them behind glass is the safest — and most advisable — option for display.


Considering the age of the ceramics, fully intact examples are quite rare and some restoration is to be expected. In fact, many Song-dynasty ceramics are repaired with a Japanese gilt-lacquer technique known as kintsugi, which celebrates a work’s unique history, rather than concealing the repair. Present-day collectors may find that pieces develop condition issues with age, in which case restoration is definitely worth the investment. There are many new technologies and materials; restoration work can be done if you use a good restorer.


Affordable estimates for Song ceramics

Given their scarcity, Song ceramics are highly-prized. The millions paid for Ru ware, however, shouldn’t scare off burgeoning collectors: there are many examples of Song ceramics in great condition that are relatively affordable, running in the thousands of dollars. The prices realised at auction for this category vary and are determined by factors such as quality, glaze and rarity.



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