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茶入筆記 vol.12 紹鷗茄子,唐物茶入的巔峰:松本茄子 - 澪標茄子 - 紹鷗茄子 - Tea Caddy Notes, the Karamono Nasu of Takeno Jôô.

武野紹鴎31歲削發於大德寺為僧,以「紹鴎」為號,39歲收"田中与四郎"為徒(千利休)。在茶道的發展過程之中,武野紹鴎無疑是一位承上啓下的人物。


At the age of 31, Takeno Jôô became a monk at Daitoku-ji Temple, and took the name "Jôô". At the age of 39, he took on Sen no Rikyu as his disciple. In the course of the development of the tea ceremony, Takeno Jôô was undoubtedly the figure who set the stage for the development of the tea ceremony.


武野 紹鷗(たけの じょうおう、文亀2年(1502年) - 弘治元年閏10月29日(1555年12月12日))


他繼承了田村珠光的理論並結合自身風格相發明,獨辟蹊徑地開創了武野風格,在茶具、茶室和茶花上創制了新穎的紹鷗派風格。同時,他也將珠由參禪悟到而還原的自省美學理論實踐於茶道的各個環節之上,使之具體化、形象化,從而在實踐中得到昇華。

比如紹鴎就曾說過: 「人活六十載,然壯年不過二十, 唯不斷投身茶道,則眾道皆通, 如欠學藝之心,則眾道皆拙」。意思是說人生有效時間短暫,不斷學習茶道,才能觸類旁通;假如沒有了進取學習之心,將會什麼都做不好。


千利休的弟子山上宗二的著作中感慨道,武野紹鴎乃次於珠光、引拙之「古今茶湯名人」,能得到這個稱號的茶人自古至今僅有四人

在當時茶道界的評判標準,至少必須擁有一件唐物才夠資格成為名人。而武野紹鴎一度曾擁有60件唐物:趙昌「五種菓子の繪」、馬麟的朝山畫、著名的「紹鷗茄子」… 


He inherited the theories of Murata Juko and developed his own style to create a new style of tea utensils, tea rooms, and tea flowers in the unique style of the Jôô school. At the same time, he also put into practice the theory of self-reflection and aesthetics, which he had realised through Zen meditation, in all aspects of the tea ceremony, making it concrete and visual, and then sublimating it in practice.


For example, Jôô once said: "People live for sixty years, but their prime years are only twenty, but if they keep devoting themselves to the tea ceremony, then all the paths will be understood, and if they do not have the heart to learn the art, then all the paths will be clumsy". This means that life is short, and only through continuous study of the tea ceremony can one learn from others; if one does not have the heart to learn, one will not be able to do anything well.


In the writings of Sen no Rikyu's disciple Soji, he lamented that Takeno Jôô was the most famous tea master of all time after Murata Juko & Torii Insetsu, and that there were only four tea masters who could be awarded this title since the beginning of time.


In the tea ceremony world at that time, one had to own at least one Karamono item to qualify as a tea master. At one time, Takeno Jôô owned over 60 Karamono items: Zhao Chang's "Painting of Five Kinds of Tang", Ma Lin's painting of Asama, the famous "Jôô Nasu"...

紹鴎三茄子

* 松本茄子 - 澪標茄子 - 紹鷗茄子


▲ 唐物茄子茶入



松本茄子」(紹鴎茄子)南宋 - 元 大名物:松本珠報、鳥居引拙、武野紹鴎、今井宗久、織田信長、豊臣秀吉(毀於大阪城)、德川家康(元和元年 - 藤重藤元‧藤重藤厳父子大漆修復)、岩崎家(明治九年)


「 付藻茄子」 - 大名物:足利義満、足利義政、村田珠光、松永久秀、織田信長、豊臣秀吉、徳川家康伝來 / 靜嘉堂文庫 蔵


據說一向節儉低調的岩崎彌之助,在三菱集團遭受經濟困境的時候,卻提出了要提前預支一整年的薪水,目的僅僅是為了購買付藻茄子和松本茄子兩只茶入,可見這兩只茶入的分量。

It is said that Yonosuke Iwasaki, who had always been frugal and low-profile, when the Mitsubishi Group was suffering from economic difficulties, offered to advance a whole year's salary for the sole purpose of purchasing two tea caddy, namely, nasu of Fumizo and nasu of Matsumoto, which showed the weight of these two tea caddies.


▲ 唐物茄子茶入 銘「澪標茄子」(紹鴎茄子)大名物:松本珠報、鳥居引拙、武野紹鴎、今井宗久、織田信長、豊臣秀吉、柳営御物、東本願寺、鴻池家伝來,底部有紹鴎花押「みをつくし」/ 湯木美術館蔵 重要美術品 



漢作唐物茄手茶入。


大名物。別名「みをつくし茄手」。


武野紹鴎が所持していましたので 「紹鴎茄手」として世間に知られていますが、茶入の底に「みをつくし」の文字と書判がありますので、「みをつくし(澪標)茄手」の別名があります。


しかし、なぜこのように名付けたかは定かでないようです。


茶道の主流を歩んできた茶入で、紹鴎遺愛品であり鴻池家伝来として名高いです。


仕覆うち一枚は正法寺緞手で、ことに五種緞手の・つとして珍重されています。


形はやや小振りでありますが、総体に飴色地匹肩先より蛇蝸釉がなたれかかり、鮮やかな変化をみせています。


置形に流れ集まる三筋の釉色もよく、露のに止まりも青釉厚く溜ります。


腰筋の低い側にある釉抜けの丸い添景も、賞美されるにふさわしいです。


形状・釉色・景色ともにすぐれ、小品であるが茄手茶入中の逸品といえます。


《付属物》蓋-二、紹鴎好、木口挽・古織好 仕覆-二、紹鴎間道・正法寺緞手(図版右より) 仕覆箱-桐白木、書付閑事庵宗信(坂本周斎)筆、蓋裏書付同筆 挽家-木地黒塗、胴合口藤組、内朱塗四方盆-利休在判 盆箱-桐白木、蓋裏書付吟啄斎宗左筆 内箱-桐白木、書付小堀遠州筆 外箱-桐白木、書付閑事庵宗信筆、蓋裏書付同筆添状-小堀遠州より江月和尚あて


《伝来》松本珠報-鳥居引拙-武野紹鴎-今井宗久-織田信長-今井宗久-豊臣秀吉-今井宗久-今井宗薫-今井宗呑-徳川家光-東本願寺-河村瑞軒-閑事庵宗信-鴻池善右衛門


《寸法》高さ6.0 口径2.7 胴径6.3 底径2.7 重さ五五


唐物茄子茶入 紹鷗茄子」南宋 重要美術品 “武野紹鴎 - 辻玄哉 - 川越松平家 - 益田家伝來” サンリツ服部美術館 蔵 重要美術品/ 紹鷗茄子為茶道中濃茶器,茶人武野紹鴎所持而得名。該器物為飴色小茶器,因其蓋子和茶入密合度符合珠光提出的幽玄、釉色符合侘寂、製作工藝符合物哀, 被列為天下四茄子之一


大名物。漢作茄子茶入。紹鷗所持の茄子茶入は二つあり、これはその一つ。総体に飴色で光沢が麗しく、青瑠璃色の景色がある。一ヵ所腰筋のあたまで潜入した火間があって、格好は優美であり、この種のうち最も茶味に富んだものの一つである。紹鷗ののち辻玄哉、肥前鍋島帯刀(1587 天正一五年)、武蔵国川越城主松平大和守(1679、延宝七年)を経て1919年(大正八)益田信世に入った。(『古今名物類聚』『茶事秘録』『万宝全書』『大正名器鑑』)



*「天下四茄子」說法:

九十九髪茄子、珠光小茄子、绍鴎茄子、似たり茄子(又名百贯茄子)


這只紹鴎茄子來歷不凡,曾參加過1587年豐臣秀吉舉辦的「北野大茶湯」茶會。日本茶道傳統一般規定,當茄子使用持有者的名稱命名的時候,應一直採用第一位持有著的名號,除非後來之持有者變得更有名了,才可以考慮更改名字。

This Jôô nasu has a remarkable history, having taken part in the Kitano Ochayu tea ceremony organised by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1587. Japanese tea ceremony tradition dictates that when an nasu is named after its bearer, the name of the first bearer should always be used, unless a later bearer becomes more famous, in which case a change of name can be considered.

紹鴎之眼

武野紹鴎的審美之精絕,更是早有記載。《山上宗二記》中寫道:“當代無數之茶具,皆出自紹鴎之「目明」。”即「山上宗二」認為,紹鴎之眼已經超越了「目利」的範疇,堪稱「目明」。

所謂「目利」,指的是能看出某種茶器的由來和藝術價值,而「目明」則不限於茶器,而是能從生活中的一切器具,乃至自然界的森羅萬象中發掘美,也就是說,紹鴎能夠從凡人認為平常普通的事物中發現驚人之美

正因有了紹鴎,許多之前不可能成為茶器的物件,皆在其「目明」之下紛紛重生,成為茶人珍惜的茶器。


歷史上「侘」與「寂」曾被作為同義詞使用。「侘」為日本古語,最早出現在《萬葉集》、《古今和歌集》等文學作品中,本義指的是“低下”、“貧賤”,用於表達悲觀、落寞的情感和心境。寂,是指寧靜而深邃的內心世界所流露出的一種寂靜而深沈的情趣。


武野紹鴎將侘引入茶道,取意「枯寂茶」,表達一種難以念及的寂寥之感,是一種茶道的追求,和接受不足狀態的一種精神境界。


The beauty of Takeno Jôô's aesthetics has been well documented. It is written in Yamanoue Sōji: "Countless tea utensils of our time have come from the eye of Jôô." That is to say, according to "Sōji", the eyes of Jôô had gone beyond the scope of "Meili" (sharp) and could be called "Meiming" (Unsurpassed).


The term "Meili" refers to the ability to discern the origin and artistic value of a particular type of tea vessel, while "Meiming" is not limited to tea vessels, but rather to the ability to discover beauty in all the utensils of daily life, and even in the myriad of things in the natural world, which means that Jôô is able to find amazing beauty in things that are considered ordinary by mortals.


Thanks to Jôô, many objects that would never have become tea wares before have been reborn under his "eye-opening" vision and have become tea wares treasured by tea lovers.


Historically, the terms "wabi" and "shizuku" have been used as synonyms. "Wabi" is an ancient Japanese word that first appeared in literary works such as the Manyoshu (collection of leaves) and the Kujin Wakyo (collection of ancient and modern songs). The original meaning of the word was "lowly" or "poor", and it was used to express pessimistic and despondent feelings and state of mind. Silence refers to a quiet and deep feeling that exudes from a serene and profound inner world.


Takeno Jôô introduced wabi into the tea ceremony, taking the meaning of "wabi-sabi tea" to express a sense of loneliness that is hard to imagine, a pursuit of the tea ceremony, and a spiritual state of acceptance of inadequacy.


▲ 「和歌本阿弥光悦 墨跡 黑田家 家传 / 可能来自「新古今和歌集」中藤原家隆的和歌


紹鴎與和歌

武野紹鴎不僅是大名茶人,他也是一個優秀的連歌師,茶與和歌在他身上完美的融合,互相啓發,互相印證。

他認為「侘」被吟詠的意義更接近於“誠實、謹慎、平和”,於是將茶道中「侘」的意義由消極的落寞意味,逐漸轉變成積極的肯定含義

即使生活寂寥貧瘠,但卻享受陶醉於寧靜平和的心境。「侘」,從落寞消極,變為不驕不奢,以自然質樸為基礎,是一種從生活中感悟而來,並隨著茶道一起發展起來的審美意識。

Takeno Jôô was not only a Daimyo teamaste , but also an excellent renga master, in whom tea and wabi-sabi were perfectly fused, inspiring and confirming each other.


He believed that the meaning of "wabi" as chanted was closer to "honesty, prudence, and calmness", and gradually changed the meaning of "wabi" in the tea ceremony from one of despondency to one of positivity and certainty:


The meaning of wabi in the tea ceremony was gradually changed from one of despondency to one of positive affirmation: to enjoy the tranquillity and calmness of life, even if it is a lonely and barren one. "Wabi" has changed from a sense of despondency to a sense of not being proud or extravagant, and is based on natural simplicity. It is an aesthetic sense that has been learnt from life, and has developed along with the tea ceremony.



紹鴎曾用《新古今和歌集》中藤原定家的一首詩來表達他心中的侘之美:

放眼望去,不見花兒,不見紅葉,

惟見茅舍,隱於秋暮。

在這裡,春花、紅葉是唐物的象徵,而茅舍、秋暮指的是和物。只有空無境界的美,才是紹鴎心中的「侘」之美。當然,在接下來的茶道發展中,千利休出現了,「侘」的含義又有了一些微妙的變化。當然,沒有紹鴎,也就沒有後來的利休了… 

Here, spring flowers and red leaves are the symbols of Karanomo, while thatched cottages and autumn twilight refer to Wamono. Only the beauty of an empty realm is the beauty of "wabi" in Jôô's mind. Of course, in the next development of the tea ceremony, Sen no Rikyu appeared, and the meaning of "wabi" changed again in some subtle ways. Of course, without Jôô, there would be no Rikyu...


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