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北朝筆記 vol.7 上海博物館思惟菩薩:北齊天保四年道常造太子石像 - A Northern Qi Bodhisattva from Shanghai Museum.



這尊思惟菩薩是上海博物館雕塑館的鎮館之寶之一,雖然菩薩頭部在滅佛運動中遺失,但其刀工、石質、藝術造就卻在眾多造像中脫穎而出。與瓷器或其他實用器物不同,雕刻造像從誕生的第一天就是純藝術,對純藝術的欣賞,是一種審美體系、思維模式的訓練。


初入門的藏家往往追求材質的精細,並常常把材質的細膩度與藝術風格的精密度聯繫在一起,這當然是一個最大的誤區,但也是一個本能性的思維慣性。改變這樣的思維模式,也恰恰是藝術欣賞,藝術收藏的深層意義。


原名:北齊天保四年道常造像

時代:南北朝

詳細年代:天保4年

尺寸:高52釐米



材質:青石

工藝:圓雕

文字釋文:大齊天保四年歲次癸酉八月辛卯朔十九日已酉,■宋寺比丘道常,減剖衣鉢之資,敬造太子像一軀,普為七仞眾生,國王帝王、師僧父母、普同斯福。


位置:上海博物館 東館


簡介

此件石像頭部及右手已殘,其姿態與常見的思惟菩薩造型接近。造像半跏趺坐束帛圓墩上,體略前傾。右腿上抬,右肘支膝上,左手握足。足下為小蓮台。菩薩下身著裙,裙擺分兩層浮雕回曲形皺摺,腿部裙褶單勾陰線呈「U」型。下為長方體石基座。基座為素面,依然存留東魏元象、興和時期的遺風。基座正面刻有道常造太子石像一區等發願文。


故宫博物院


【僧理造石思惟像】

新00042882

僧理造石思惟像,北齊,殘高30釐米。


思惟菩薩面相清秀俊雅,頭戴三葉狀冠,系寶繒,繒帶下垂肩部,胸飾瓔珞,半跏趺座於筌蹄上,左右的龍樹與脅侍殘缺。基座外側為力士,中間為童子托爐,托爐童子與外側站立力士之間是雙獅。座內底部鑿空,獅子等圖像為透雕。基座背後刻發願文:「天保五年二月八日,比丘尼僧理為見存父、亡內親、亡弟二人,敬造白玉石思惟一區(軀),一切含生,普蒙正覺。」



【樂妙香造石思惟像】 新00044943   

樂妙香造石思惟像,北齊天保二年(551年),高60釐米。   

思惟菩薩圓形頭光,頭戴三葉冠,寶繒自耳部下垂至肩,眉目清秀,表情溫和。與東魏以前的造像相比,此尊造像的面龐已從長方形向圓形過渡,裙底邊由方折變為弧線,更多地使用了陰線雙勾,衣紋刻畫漸趨簡化,給人以淳樸自然之感。造像的基座為素面,依然存留東魏元象、興和時期的遺風。基座背面刻發願文:「天保二年四月廿五日,盧奴縣人樂妙香敬造白玉像一區(軀),上為皇帝陛下、乳(渤)海大王,後為亡夫、亡者男女並及己身、現在眷屬,伏為二途地獄,離苦得樂,願法界眾生,一時作佛。」

「乳海大王」應是「渤海大王」之誤寫。據《北齊書·卷一》記載,北魏普泰二年,高歡「廢節閔及中興主而立孝武。孝武既即位,授神武(即高歡。其子稱齊帝後,追尊他為神武帝。--筆者注)大丞相、天柱大將軍、太師、世襲定州刺史,增封並前十五萬戶。」後又封為渤海王。自東魏始,權利的中心已從元魏移至高氏家族,皇帝成為傀儡,人們心目中只有大丞相、渤海王。民國初年定州所出東魏武定元年高歸彥造像的銘文中便有為大丞相、渤海王祈福等內容。天保二年是北齊建立的第二年,為高歡造像更是名正言順,這一作法不僅出現在王室皇族中,在平民百姓中亦然,此頗能反映出高氏在定州之影響力。稱高歡為渤海大王而不稱其為神武皇帝應是東魏時期習慣稱呼的延續。


鄴城博物館


This Bodhisattva is one of the treasures of the Sculpture Hall of the Shanghai Museum. Although the Buddha's head was lost during the campaign to eliminate the Buddha, its craftsmanship, stone quality, and artistic achievement stand out among the many statues. Different from porcelain or other practical objects, carved statues from the birth of the first day is pure art, the appreciation of pure art, is a kind of aesthetic system, mode of thinking training.


Beginning collectors tend to pursue the fineness of the material, and often associate the fineness of the material with the precision of the artistic style, which is of course the biggest misunderstanding, but also an instinctive habit of mind. Changing this way of thinking is precisely the deeper meaning of art appreciation and art collection.


Original name: Daosheng Statue, Northern Qi, 4th year of Tianbao period

Period: Northern and Southern Dynasties

Detailed date: 4th year of Tianbao

Size: 52 centimeters high

Material: lapis lazuli

Craftsmanship: Round carving

Location:Shanghai Museum East Wing


Description

The head and right hand of this stone statue have been damaged, and its posture is close to that of the common Bodhisattva of contemplation. The statue is seated in a half-legged position on a round pier of silk, with the body slightly tilted forward. The right leg is raised, the right elbow is supported on the knee, and the left hand holds the foot. Under the foot is a small lotus platform. The Bodhisattva's lower body is wearing a skirt, which is divided into two layers of embossed curved folds, and the folds of the leg skirts are single outlined in a "U" shape. Under the rectangular stone base. The pedestal is plain and still retains the style of the Yuanxiang and Xinghe periods of the Eastern Wei Dynasty. On the front side of the pedestal, there are inscriptions such as "Dao Chang Zao Zao Prince Stone Statue of a District".


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