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the Avery Brundage Collection:From 1935 Exhibition to Asian Art Museum / 天降大任:从伦敦中国艺术展览会到旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆

Updated: Jan 15, 2020


Chicago financier and well-known former Olympic president Avery Brundage began collecting Asian art after visiting the International Exhibition of Chinese Art in Burlington Palace, London, 1935-36; His collection consists of more than 7,000 artworks from Europe, Africa and South America, and Asia, Brundage selected 117 Chinese pieces to tour in the seven major museums in the United States from 1968 to 1969, causing a huge sensation. Brundage has a keen sense of the Chinese-style aesthetic as a whole, he values the Chinese ancients who devoted a lot of labor, skills, love and imagination to the production of ordinary everyday items. It straddles the material — he pays tribute to the Chinese spirit behind the great Chinese art in countless different periods and materials.


芝加哥金融家,著名的前奥运会主席艾弗里·布伦戴奇(Avery Brundage)在参观了1935-36年在伦敦伯灵顿宫举行的中国艺术国际展览会之后,开始收藏亚洲艺术; 其收藏涵盖来自欧洲、非洲和南美以及亚洲为主的七千多件艺术品,1968年-1969年期间,布伦戴奇挑选了其中117件中国艺术经典作品在美国七大博物馆巡展,引起巨大轰动。 布伦戴奇对中国式审美的整体有着极为敏锐的触觉,中国古人为平凡日常用品的制作所倾注的大量劳动、技艺、爱与想象力更是令其赞叹不已; 布伦戴奇的收藏注定是跨越材质的 — 他致敬的是无数不同时期、材质的伟大中国艺术品背后之中国精神,是不朽的、屡屡点石成金的、犹如魔术师般的「中国之手」…

天降大任:从伦敦中国艺术展览会到旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆

Divine Appointment:

from London 1935 RA exhibition to Asian Art Musuem

the Avery Brundage Collection

西周方鼎,宝鸡出土,亚洲艺术博物馆布伦戴奇序列收藏 / Ritual food vessel, approx. 1042–1021 BCE. China; unearthed in Baoji, Shaanxi province. Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B2+. Photograph © Asian Art Museum of San Francisco.

艾弗里·布伦戴奇(1887 - 1975),美国体育运动员、 建筑业界中的商业巨贾、 国际奥委会首位非欧洲主席(1952 -1972)。 布伦戴奇精通田径、篮球、铁饼、十项全能, 曾参加 1912年斯德哥尔摩奥运会,1914年、1916年、1918年三次获美国田径全能冠军。 

Avery Brundage (1887-1975), an American sports player, a business magnate in the construction industry, and the first non-European president of the International Olympic Committee (1952-1972). Brundage is proficient in track and field, basketball, discus, and decathlon. He participated in the 1912 Stockholm Olympics and won the U.S. Athletics Championship three times in 1914, 1916, and 1918.


历史背景

早期人生 Humble Background

艾弗里·布伦戴奇,1887年9月28日出生于美国底特律一个普通家庭, 五岁时全家搬至芝加哥, 但很快父母离异, 艰苦的环境使得他从小就十分自立, 年幼时便出外自力更生。

布伦戴奇先去了起重机手工操作训练学校读完高中, 后进入尚佩恩的伊利诺伊大学专攻土木工程学。 作为一个理科生,他并没有局限自己的爱好。 当他还在中学的时候,就在一次写作比赛中获胜;在大学期间,他在文学上的造诣使他成为《作家》杂志的主编。 


Avery Brundage was born in an ordinary family in Detroit, USA on September 28, 1887. The family moved to Chicago when he was five years old, but his parents divorced quickly. The difficult environment made him very independent since childhood. go out of self-reliance.


Brundage went to the Crane Manual Training School to finish high school, then went to Champaign's University of Illinois to specialize in civil engineering. As a science student, he did not confine himself to the hobby. When he was still in high school, just won a writing contest; in college, his accomplishments in literature made him editor of the magazine "writer."

▲ 封面田径运动员布伦戴奇,1916 年 10 月 1 日《THE WORLD MAGAZINE》


1909年,文理兼优的布伦戴奇以优异成绩毕业于伊利诺伊大学工程系, 早年便热衷田径运动的他, 学生时代就展现出超凡的运动才能:1912年参加斯德哥尔摩第5届奥运会,获五项全能第5名; 又于1914、1915和1918年3次夺得美国全能冠军。

坚韧是布伦戴奇优秀特征之一,也是其成功的关键。 短跑运动员查尔斯·帕多克(Charlie Paddock)这位被誉为是「世界上最快的人」,曾感慨的说:与其说布伦戴奇是天生的运动员,不如说他是伟大的斗士…”


In 1909, Brundage, a liberal arts and science graduate, graduated with honors from the Engineering Department of the University of Illinois. He was enthusiastic about track and field in his early years. He showed extraordinary sportsmanship as a student: he participated in the 5th Olympic Games in Stockholm in 1912 and won five 5th in the all-around event; won the US All-Around Championship three times in 1914, 1915 and 1918.


"Toughness is one of Brundage's outstanding characteristics and the key to his success. Sprinter Charlie Paddock, known as" the fastest man in the world ", once said with emotion: It's better to say that Brundage is both a born athlete and a great fighter ... "

▲ 布伦戴奇,1916年,美国田径全能比赛


他曾7次连任美国业余田径联盟主席,担任美国奥委会主席25年(1929-1953); 曾担任泛美运动组织主席12年, 1936年被选为国际奥委会委员,1937-1972年为执委, 1946-1952年任副主席;1952年当选为国际奥委会主席,直到1972年离任。


He was re-elected President of the American Amateur Athletics Federation seven times, and served as Chairman of the US Olympic Committee for 25 years (1929-1953); he served as Chairman of the Pan American Sports Organization for 12 years, and was elected to the International Olympic Committee in 1936, 1937-1972 For the Executive Board, he served as Vice-Chairman from 1946 to 1952; he was elected Chairman of the International Olympic Committee in 1952 until his departure in 1972.

财富积累

商业才子Business Genius

布伦戴奇毕业后便在几家建筑公司开启了其职业生涯,他对自己非常有职业规划。 毕业后仅仅六年,1915年,他便存够积蓄启动了一家以自己名字命名的建筑公司, 从事芝加哥及周边城市的建设工作,大部分的早期收入来自战后政府合同。


“布伦戴奇公司在20年代建造了大量的高层住宅,他使用快速建造方法,让投资者能迅速从投资中获利。由于战后房地产业兴旺,布伦戴奇的公司获取了可观的利润…”


Brundage began his career at several construction companies after graduation, and he has a very professional career plan. Just six years after graduation, in 1915, he had enough savings to start a construction company named after him, engaged in the construction of Chicago and surrounding cities. Most of his early income came from post-war government contracts.


"Brundage Corporation built a large number of high-rise dwellings in the 1920s. He used rapid construction methods to allow investors to quickly profit from investments. Due to the booming real estate industry after the war, Brundage's company gained considerable profit…"

鎏金铜坐佛,十六国后赵时代,Seated Buddha , Gilt Bronze, H. 15in. Posterior Chao Dynasty, dated 338 A.O - 布伦戴奇旧藏,旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆珍藏,纪年「建武四年(338)」铭文的五胡十六国〈鎏金铜佛像〉。 这是目前已知传世中国纪年造像中,时代最早的一件作品,相当于十六国后赵时期。 该佛像体量巨大,长目杏眼,鼻梁低宽,且头顶肉髻高隆突出,发丝纹路清晰可见,呈现出中国化的五官面容特征。 但其身上所披挂的通肩式袈裟,在胸腹间以左右对称的方式,层层出现U形排列状,表明仍存有印度犍陀罗风格的影响,属于迈向中土造像发展的过渡阶段。


Seated Buddha, Gilt Bronze, H. 15in. Posterior Chao Dynasty, dated 338 AO-Brundage Collection, San Francisco Asian Art Museum Collection (338) "inscriptions Sixteen Kingdoms <gilt bronze statues>. It is now known statues handed down the Chinese calendar, the earliest age of a work, the equivalent of Zhao during the Sixteen States. The huge amount of body statues, almond long head, a low nose width, and the head projecting Gaolong meat bun, hair texture clearly visible, showing features of the facial features in China. But the body through the shoulder wrapped in a robe, between the chest and abdomen in a symmetrical manner, the layers appear U-shaped arrangement, suggesting that there is still influenced by Indian Gandhara style, statues belong to the transition towards the development of Turkey stage.


1924年建成的坐拥林肯公园景观的Sheridan-Brompton Apartments仅用了5个月便建成; 另外一个盈利模式是布伦戴奇自己投资,3800 Sheridan Road (1927),布伦戴奇把物业归由其弟弟Chester拥有,耗资318万美金,这栋17层的大楼仅用8个月便建成; 另外布伦戴奇也投资建造了一些酒店项目,包括著名的La Salle Hotel。


Built in 1924, Sheridan-Brompton Apartments with Lincoln Park view took only 5 months to build. Another profit model is Brenditch's own investment, 3800 Sheridan Road (1927). Brenditch attributed the property. Owned by his brother Chester and costing $ 3.18 million, the 17-story building was completed in just eight months. In addition, Brundage also invested in the construction of a number of hotel projects, including the famous La Salle Hotel.


La Salle Hotel Chicago 1910, 布伦戴奇在很长一段时间里曾经拥有这栋大楼。 芝加哥拉萨尔酒店(La Salle Hotel)是布伦戴奇的一项比较著名的投资,该酒店建于1908年, 布伦戴奇1940年首先将其出租,随后将其买下。1946年,酒店遭到大火严重破坏时,布伦戴奇花费了约250万美元对其进行了改建和现代化。 在布伦戴奇担任国际奥委会主席期间,他定居于此,酒店也因此在国际体育界闻名。 他在1970年出售了这家酒店,但后来在购买者未能付款时又将其收回。

1923年,布伦戴奇在芝加哥南侧的Torrence大街上为福特汽车公司建造了一座大型装配厂。它造价400万美元,将16英亩(6.5公顷)的空间置于在同一屋檐下, 这是布伦戴奇建造的最大的工业厂房。新工厂在十个月内建成,满足了1920年代全国对Ford T型汽车的需求,并在1950年生产了154,244辆汽车。


Brundage had owned the building for a long time. The La Salle Hotel in Chicago is a well-known investment in Brundage. The hotel was built in 1908. Brundage first rented it out in 1940 and then bought it. When the hotel was severely damaged by the fire in 1946, Brundage spent about $ 2.5 million rebuilding and modernizing it. He settled here during Brundage's presidency of the International Olympic Committee, which made the hotel famous in the international sports world. He sold the hotel in 1970, but later recovered it when the buyer failed to pay.


In 1923, Brundage built a large assembly plant for Ford Motor Company on Torrence Street on the south side of Chicago. It cost $ 4 million and placed 16 acres (6.5 hectares) under one roof, the largest industrial plant built by Brundage. The new plant was completed in ten months, meeting national demand for Ford T cars in the 1920s and producing 154,244 cars in 1950.

▲ Ford T Model 汽车流水线

截止1947年,布伦戴奇建设了相当大量工厂、宾馆和公寓楼。 尽管经济大萧条很大程度上影响了他的财富,但他凭借自己在商圈中积累的好人品和名声躲过了一劫。


“30年代,他将其事业的中心转向股份和资产收购业务,胆大心细,坚韧又敢于面对挑战的性格,助其完成了几笔利润可观的大生意。 而尤其令他感到自豪的是,这一切都是靠他自己的努力完成的…”

As of 1947, Brundage had built a considerable number of factories, hotels and apartment buildings. Although the Great Depression affected his wealth to a large extent, he escaped with his good character and reputation accumulated in the business circle.


"In the 1930s, he turned the focus of his business to the acquisition of shares and assets. His boldness, tenacity, and courage to face challenges helped him to complete several large and profitable businesses. He was especially proud of All this was done by his own efforts ... "

▲ Chariot Fitting. Late Warring States. Chin-ts 'un style. Ca. 3rd century B.C. Bronze with silver inlay. L. 8% in. B60B702


据历史学家和档案学家梅纳德·布里奇福德(Maynard Brichford)称,布伦戴奇不仅仅摆脱了萧条的艰难岁月,而是浴火重生,重新赢回了可观的年收入,良好的声誉和出色的投资回报。 布伦戴奇的远见卓识为他带来巨大财富,截止1960年,他的资产估值为2500万美元,用黄金价格折算,大约相当于今天的10亿美元

According to historian and archivist Maynard Brichford, Brundage was not just getting rid of the difficult years of depression, but was reborn and regained considerable annual income. Good reputation and excellent return on investment. Brundage's foresight brought him great wealth. As of 1960, his assets were valued at 25 million US dollars, which is equivalent to about 1 billion US dollars today.


国际奥委会

理想主义者the idealist man

布伦戴奇的整个人生都是一个理想主义者,他提出运动“业余性”的概念,并认为业余运动是理想的体育模式。 他认为运动员应“在不考虑奖励或任何形式的报酬的情况下,为比赛本身的热爱而竞争”,而专业运动员则是娱乐业的一部分了。

业余主义(Ametuerism)对布伦戴奇来说,表达了一种文艺复兴的概念: 「在许多领域都有能力,但在任何领域都不是专家」。

Brundage has been an idealist throughout his life. He proposed the concept of "amateur sex" and considered amateur sports as the ideal sports model. He believes that athletes should "compete for the love of the game without considering rewards or any form of reward," while professional athletes are part of the entertainment industry.


For Brendage, Ametuerism expressed a concept of Renaissance: "capable in many fields, but not an expert in any field".

▲ Tiger Pendant. Chin-ts’un style. Ca. 3rd Century B.C. Jade, B62J63

布伦戴奇从始至终坚持奥林匹克的业余性,他以历史的观点,将自己的理论建立在古希腊黄金时代的运动员业余地位的基础之上,并且将古代社会体育运动衰落的原因归结于职业化的兴起。 他相信,体育的可信性只有通过业余体育来保留,他认为,如果体育失去了业余性,它就不是体育而是商业活动了。 


Brundage insisted on Olympic amateurism from beginning to end. He based his theory on historical perspectives, based on the amateur status of athletes in the golden age of ancient Greece, and attributed the decline of ancient social sports to The rise of professionalism. He believes that the credibility of sports can only be retained through amateur sports. He believes that if sports lose amateurism, it is not a sport but a commercial activity.

充满争议的决定

1933 年希特勒掌权后不久,美国及其他西方民主国家的观察家对支持由纳粹政权举办奥运会的道德性产生质疑。 当时任美国奥委会主席布伦戴奇在回应 1933年犹太运动员的迫害报告时,声明:“如果允许个别国家出于阶级、信仰或种族的原因而限制参赛,这将会损害现代奥林匹克复兴的根本。”


Controversial decision


Shortly after Hitler came to power in 1933, observers in the United States and other Western democracies questioned the morality of supporting the Olympics hosted by the Nazi regime. In his response to the 1933 report on the persecution of Jewish athletes, then-Blendage stated: "If individual countries are allowed to restrict their participation for reasons of class, belief or race, it will undermine the modern Olympics fundamental."

▲ Hand Warmer. Early T'ang. 7th-8th century A.D. Pottery . H . 8 in ., W. 8 in . B60P140

▲ Cup-stand / Incense Burner. Sung. Northern Celadon Yaozhou. 11th-12th century A.O. Porcelain. H. 7 in., Diam . 7 in. B60P1379


布伦戴奇,像奥林匹克运动的其他人一样,起初考虑撤销德国的奥运会主办权。 但在1934 年对德国体育设施进行短暂和严格限制的视察后,布伦戴奇公开表示,犹太运动员受到德国的公平对待,比赛应该按计划进行。这在当时引起相当大的争议。


“无论我们对这些决定评价如何,其中可见布伦戴奇对国际运动行政管理的果决和韧劲。布伦戴奇作为一个理想主义者,始终将奥林匹克隔绝于商业之外,自1973年布伦戴奇卸任后,奥委会才开始放弃这个原则,接受如可口可乐等公司的商业赞助…”

▲ Horse . T'ang . 680 - 750 A.O . Pottery. H. 14% in., L. 18 in. B60P22 +


布伦戴奇收藏

七大美国博物馆巡展

the avery brundage collection


▲ Pratyeka Buddha. Northern Ch'i. Probably from Hsiang-ta'ng shan (响堂山石窟). Later part of 6th century A.D . Limestone . H. 42 in. B60S153+ 

▲ Bodhisattva. Mid T'ang. From T'ien-lung shan (天龙山石窟). 8th century A.D . Sandstone . H. 28 in. B65S5


展览布伦戴奇精选中国器物117例,展览线索突出强调了创造这批日常用具时达到的审美美感所需的技巧和想象力


▲ Bowl. Late Southern Sung or Yuan. Kuan ware. 13th-14th century A. D. Porcelain. Diam. 4 5/8 in. B62P149


布伦戴奇在巡回展的前言特地提到:艾弗里·布伦戴奇亚洲艺术收藏中大约有一半的艺术品是来自中国,因此将中国艺术作为第一个巡回展览的主题似乎是合乎逻辑的。 

“事实上,这个收藏是在1935年至1936年在参观过伦敦皇家艺术学院伯灵顿堂举办的中国国际艺术展览会后开始建立的。 藏品中有小件,也有大件,有些是前所未见的,有些已经享誉世界,但不管是未知的或是伟大的,都是为了揭示这个杰出伟大文明的面纱而经我亲自挑选的…”


Brundage specifically mentioned in the foreword of the touring exhibition: About half of the artworks in the Avery Brundage Asian Art Collection are from China, so it seems appropriate to use Chinese art as the theme of the first touring exhibition. logical.


"In fact, the collection was established from 1935 to 1936 after visiting the China International Art Fair held at the Burlington Hall of the Royal College of Art in London. There are small and large pieces in the collection, some of which Some things I haven't seen are already world-renowned, but whether unknown or great, I have personally selected them to reveal the veil of this outstanding and great civilization ... "


▲ Plate. Sung . Ting ware. 10th -12 th century A.O. Porcelain. Diam. 10 1/4 in. B60P82+


1935 伦敦中国艺术国际展览会

International Exhibition of Chinese Art

Burlington House, Royal Academy of Arts, LONDON 1935-6


▲ 英国皇家艺术学院伯林顿府,Burlington House,Royal Acedemy of Arts

1935-1936年在皇家艺术学院伯灵顿堂举办的中国艺术国际艺术展览会可谓是前无古人后无来者的史诗级别展览,展品中近1/3来自中方提供的收藏,是中英友好交流的象征,亦是中国文明的“宣言之旅”,并引发了西方世界的强烈震撼… 布伦戴奇正是在这次展览的蒙召下,才开始了其中国艺术的收藏生涯。


Royal College of Art, Burlington House, Royal Acedemy of Arts

The International Art Exhibition of Chinese Art, held in Burlington Hall of the Royal College of Art from 1935-1936, can be described as an epic exhibition with no ancients and nocomers. Nearly a third of the exhibits come from the collection provided by the Chinese side, which is a friendly exchange between China and Britain. The symbol is also the "declaration journey" of Chinese civilization and has caused a strong shock in the Western world ... It was under the call of this exhibition that Brundage began his Chinese art collection career.

▲ 大维德爵士(左一)与卡尔坎普(中间)、瑞典国王(右三)在伦敦皇家艺术学院伯灵顿堂中国艺术国际展览会现场(1935),商代安阳武丁方盉,现藏根津美术馆


“这是20世纪中国艺术在国际上文化交流的一次巅峰之作。其规模之庞大,参与之政治、文化及各界精英人士之众,其对学术的包容性、学术机构藏家与经销商的重视程度,都在一个近乎完美的状态,给世界带来无比的震撼…”

Sir Percival David (first from left) with Dr. Carl Kempe (middle) and King of Sweden (third from right) at the Chinese Art International Exhibition at Burlington Hall, Royal Academy of Arts, London (1935) Nezu Art Museum


"This is the pinnacle of international cultural exchanges of Chinese art in the 20th century. Its scale is huge, with participation from the political, cultural, and elite sectors of all walks of life. The degree of attention is in a near-perfect state, bringing an incredible shock to the world ... "

无与伦比的「小臣艅」尊 the unique rhinoceros zun

* 该章节摘录自亚洲艺术博物馆馆长 许杰 - A UNIQUE PAIR: The Bronze Rhinoceros and Its Collector, Avery Brundage / 原刊于 Collectors, Collections, and Collecting the Arts of China: Histories and Challenges

Photograph © Asian Art Museum of San Francisco.

这件容器表现的是一头犀牛。尽管其圆圆的肚子略显夸张(同样的处理方法也用在口鼻部和眼睛上),然而以当时的标准来看,它毋庸置疑是一头写实风格的动物。 虽然这件容器体积较小,但栩栩如生,充满力量感。

The vessel in question portrays a rhinoceros in the flesh. Despite a slight exaggeration in the rotundity of the belly and muzzle, and a shade of stylization in the treatment of the eyes, this is ultimately a rather realistic animal, certainly by the standards of its time. The size of the vessel is small, but the beast is lively and powerful, with all the features portrayed with a straightforward, natural charm.

「小臣艅」尊,清道光时期山东寿张梁山(今山东梁山县)出土,商代晚期,青铜,长 32.8 厘米,宽 22.9 厘米,高 22.9 厘米,美国旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆藏(B60B1+)


所有的特征都刻画了一个纯朴、富有原始魅力的形象。 犀牛下垂的身躯显得敦实丰满,具有强烈的触觉吸引力。 它四足粗壮,分开伫立,生动地传达了它们承载的重量,而头骨如同一架长出两只犄角的火车头。 


The rhinoceros’s drooping body is heavy and plump, imparting a very tactile appeal; the legs are stout and splayed, conveying vividly the great weight they carry; the skull appears like a pow- erful locomotive with two horns.


犀尊铸造者甚至细心描绘了它皮肤上的褶皱,蹄分三趾,尾巴粗短,两耳大张,显示了犀牛处在警觉状态。 事实上,两只犄角说明犀尊表现的是亚洲东南部的苏门答腊犀。 


The bronze caster paid close attention to depicting the teeth and the puckered hide, odd-numbered toes, and stubby tail . The extended ears indicate that the rhinoceros is in a state of high alert . The fact that it has two horns suggests that it is a Sumatran rhinoceros from mainland Southeast Asia.

铸造者省略了犀牛的生殖器官,所以我们无从知晓其性别。 犀尊内部是圆形空腔,使之成为容器。 它原本有盖,应该是设计成与整尊轮廓相协调的形状。


One detail the caster omitted, however, is the genitals of the beast; we do not know its sex. Inside the rhinoceros is a rounded cavity, which makes it a vessel. The vessel would originally have had a lid, one probably modeled to conform to the contours of the rhinoceros’s body.

▲ 从语言和书法的风格可以确定,这是一件商朝的器物。铭文的长度比一般商代铭文长,应该是公元前十一世纪商代末期。「小臣」是王室的一种官衔,出现在许多青铜器的铭文中,常常直接服务于商王。学界通常认为「人方」是商代晚期的敌人,它位于淮河流域、商朝疆域的东南方。

亚博的藏品档案没有说明犀尊价格、来源和收购日期。许杰馆长在亚博图书室的馆史数据中也查不到有关信息。 但是有足够证据证明犀尊是布伦戴奇购于一九五二年,当年该器由阿奇博尔德·吉布森·温雷(Archibald Gibson Wenley)首次以英文发表。 

根据许杰馆长的考证,该件犀尊应该购藏自著名古董经销商戴润斋(J.T.Tai),布伦戴奇曾经在一个难得的私下场合透露过:「那只犀牛尊花了我五辆凯迪拉克的钱呢」…

The Asian Art Museum’s object file does not contain the sales invoice specifying the price of the bronze rhinoceros, the source, or the date of its acquisition. I cannot locate similar information in the museum’s library archives, either. However, circumstantial evidence is strong enough to suggest that the vessel was purchased by Brundage in 1952, the year when it was published for the first time in English by Archibald Gibson Wenley (1898–1962), the first American curator of East Asian art solidly grounded in Asian lan- guage and culture. Wenley had become director of the Freer Gallery of Art in Washing- ton, D.C., in 1943.11 He began his paper by stating, “Some time ago Mr. Avery Brundage of Chicago was kind enough to show the writer an extraordinary Chinese ceremonial bronze vessel of the type hsi tsun representing a rhinoceros.” On this evidence, Brund- age had bought the vessel by 1952.


Clarence Shangraw (1935–2004), who began working for the Brundage Collection in 1964 as a research associate, narrows down the date and price of the purchase: “the [Wenley] article appeared the same year [1952] that Mr. Brundage had purchased that internationally renowned, 10th century B.C. vessel commissioned by Zhou Xin, the last Shang king; Mr. B had acquired the masterpiece from a globally-connected, Madison Avenue-based Chinese dealer. ‘That rhino vessel,’ Mr. B once said in a rare private mo- ment, ‘cost me the equivalent price of buying five Cadillacs.

戴润斋 (J.T. Tai),1920年代末在家乡无锡舅父秦叔开设的古董店当学徒。 凭借天赋、上好的眼力和敏锐的生意头脑,很快就被委任买手的任务。1930年代移居上海,开设个人古董店,1949年移居香港,从此没有返回祖国。1950年,移居美国,1953年首次赴英法便在著名的克拉克夫人明代专场购得11件拍品。1960-70年代,活跃于世界拍场,并与布伦戴奇、塞克勒关系密切。


“从布伦戴奇购买这件犀尊起,直至今天经过六十年的田野考古发掘,它依然是独一无二的。 在中国青铜时代早期的青铜容器中,目前没有第二例以犀牛为造型…”

The rhinoceros was unique when Brundage bought it, and today, after sixty years of new excavations, it still is. From the early Bronze Age there is no other vessel in the shape of a rhinoceros. Animals of any kind were a distinct minority among bronzes pro- duced in Bronze Age China.


长江以南的湖南省出土的一件象尊,生动写实的手法呈现了南方青铜器的铸造传统。 

“象尊和布伦戴奇的犀尊高度相似,栩栩如生,充满朝气,表面布满纹饰,尤其是各式龙纹。 其他动物形容器,不论来自中国的南方还是北方,周身都满饰纹样; 这使得表面光洁的犀牛更显独树一帜…”


By contrast, an elephant-shaped vessel from Hunan Province, a short dis- tance south of the Yangzi River, is much more realistic. This kind of lively rendering defines a southern bronze-casting tradition. Of the same height as the Brundage rhi- noceros, the elephant is equally engaging in its youthful plumpness. Yet its surfaces are crowded with ornaments, especially dragons in various postures. Other animal-shaped vessels, whether from northern or southern China, are almost always covered with sur- face decoration, forming a stark contrast with the plain surface of the rhinoceros. So far, the Brundage rhinoceros is one of only two known animals portrayed in the flesh.

*以上章节摘录自亚洲艺术博物馆馆长 许杰 - A UNIQUE PAIR: The Bronze Rhinoceros and Its Collector, Avery Brundage / 原刊于 Collectors, Collections, and Collecting the Arts of China: Histories and Challenges


许杰 Jay XU - 旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆馆长,普林斯顿中国早期艺术考古硕士、博士学位,师从著名青铜专家貝格立(Robert Bagley);2003至2008年,担任芝加哥艺术博物馆亚洲艺术、古代近东、古典艺术部的首席主任;1996年至2003年, 担任西雅图艺术博物馆中国艺术的策展人; 在此之前,他在纽约大都会艺术博物馆的亚洲艺术馆部担任了两年研究员。 1983年,大学刚毕业的许杰到上海博物馆担任馆长秘书。 那一年,正好赶上上海博物馆组织特大中国古代文明展“六千年的中国艺术”,到旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆进行展览,这也是他接触到的第一个外国博物馆。25年后,许杰出任旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆馆长,他也成为第一位担任美国大型博物馆馆长的华人。 许杰说,这是他与亚洲艺术博物馆的缘分。他与1985年上任的马承源馆长相处最久,马承源馆长是中国当代文博界古代青铜器、古文字研究领域的专家,他编写的《中国青铜器》一书,不仅系统地从青铜器的类别、纹饰、铭文、断代、铸造等多方面对中国青铜器的特性做出了总结,还独辟“青铜器鉴定”一节,对各类作伪手段详加说明。此书被牛津大学翻译出版后,影响极广。(东方网:中国留学生的40年 | 许杰:从留学生到美国博物馆馆长)


Jay XU, Curator of Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, Princeton Master of Arts and PhD in Early Chinese Art, under the famous bronze expert Robert Bagley; From 2003 to 2008, he served as the chief of the Asian Art, Ancient Near East and Classical Art Department of the Art Museum of Chicago. Director; From 1996 to 2003, he was the curator of Chinese art at the Seattle Art Museum. Prior to that, he was a researcher at the Asian Art Department of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York for two years.


In 1983, Jay XU, who had just graduated from the university, went to the Shanghai Museum as the curator's secretary. That year, it coincided with the Shanghai Museum organizing the "Chinese Art of the Six Thousand Years" exhibition organized by the Chinese Museum of Ancient Chinese Civilization, and exhibited at the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco. This was also the first foreign museum he came into contact with. Twenty-five years later, Xu Zhuai was the curator of the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco. He also became the first Chinese to be a curator of a large American museum. Xu Jie said that this is his fate with the Asian Art Museum. He has been around for the longest with Director Ma Chengyuan, who took office in 1985. Curator Ma Chengyuan is an expert in the field of ancient bronzes and ancient writings in contemporary Chinese cultural and art circles. His book "Chinese Bronze" not only systematically starts with the categories The inscriptions, dating, casting and other aspects have summarized the characteristics of Chinese bronzes, and also created a section entitled "Bronze Appraisal", which explains in detail various types of counterfeiting. The book was translated and published by Oxford University and has had a wide impact. (Dongfang.com: 40 Years of Chinese International Students | Jay XU: From International Student to Curator of American Museum)

布伦戴奇的青铜

旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆

the avery brundage collection of chinese bronze

Photograph © Asian Art Museum of San Francisco.

▲ Ritual wine vessel with lid (Ji Fa gong), approx. 1100–1000 BCE. China; Henan province. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE) or Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1004

▲ Ritual wine vessel (gong), approx. 1300–1050 BCE. China; probably Henan province. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1032


▲ Ritual vessel with lid (gong), approx. 1050–950 BCE. China; Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B976.a-.b

▲ Ritual vessel (lei), approx. 1050–950 BCE. China; Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B935

▲ Ritual food vessel (fangding), approx. 1400–1300 BCE. China; Henan province. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B39

▲ Ritual food vessel (fangding), 1050–900 BCE. China; probably Shaanxi province. Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B954

▲ Ritual food vessel (fangding), approx. 1050–950 BCE. China; Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B965

▲ Ritual food vessel (ding), approx. 1300–1050 BCE. Southern China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1006

▲ Ritual wine vessel (pou), approx. 1300–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1018

▲ Ritual food vessel (ding), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1044

▲ Ritual food vessel (liding), approx. 1300–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1030

▲ Ritual vessel (fangyi), approx. 1250–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B997

 Ritual food vessel (pou), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B84

 Ritual food vessel (jia), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Found in Henan, Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B61B11+

Ritual wine vessel with lid (jia), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Anyang. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B96.a-.b

Ritual wine vessel with lid (jia), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Anyang. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1019.a-.b

 Ritual wine vessel (you), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1008

 Ritual wine vessel with lid and handle (you), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1002.a-.b

 Ritual wine vessel in owl shape with lid (you), prob. 1150–950 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE) or Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B81.a-.b

 Ritual wine vessel in form of double-owl with lid (you), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B336

 Ritual wine vessel (zhi) with lid, 1300–1050 BCE. China; probably Henan province. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B3+

 Ritual wine vessel (zhi), approx. 1050–950 BCE. China; Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B658

 Ritual food vessel (you), approx. 1300–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1021

 Ritual wine vessel (zun), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B958

 Ritual wine vessel (fangzun), approx. 1050–950 BCE. China; Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1022

 Ritual wine vessel (hu), approx. 1300–1050 BCE. China; probably Shanxi province. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B6+

 Ritual wine vessel (zun), approx. 1050–900 BCE. China; Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B908

 Ritual wine vessel (he), approx. 1300–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B78

 Ritual food vessel with square base (gui), approx. 1050–950 BCE. China; Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B952

 Ritual food vessel (gui), approx. 1250–1050 BCE. China; Anyang. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze; Smooth olive patina with malachite encrustations. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1046

 Ritual wine vessel with lid (jue), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Anyang. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1049.a-.b

 Ritual wine vessel (jue), approx. 1200–1050 BCE. China; Anyang. Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B723

 Ritual wine vessel (jue), approx. 1300–1050 BCE. China; Shang dynasty (approx. 1600–1050 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B1026

 Ritual food vessel with square base (gui), approx. 1050–950 BCE. China; Western Zhou period (approx. 1050–771 BCE). Bronze. Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage Collection, B60B952

结语

布伦戴奇来自平凡的背景,却依靠自己的努力白手起家。 在一个动荡的时代,以自己的勤奋、敏锐和坚韧,把握住了机会,在商业上赢得了天时地利人和。 

“在收藏方面,布伦戴奇的人生经历赋予了他超越时代的格局和审美。 他在对藏品的购藏与判断上维持着极高的水准,屡屡得胜之余,坚韧和果断的收藏性格,更是让他触碰到超一流的艺术绝品,在收藏家中脱颖而出…”


Brundage comes from an ordinary background, but relies on his own efforts to start from scratch. In a turbulent era, with his diligence, keenness and tenacity, he seized the opportunity and won the right place in the business.


"In terms of collection, Brundage's life experience has given him a pattern and aesthetics beyond the times. He has maintained a very high standard in the collection and judgment of the collection, and has repeatedly won, and has a tough and decisive collection character , Let him touch the superb art masterpiece, stand out among collectors ... "

舞人浮雕砖,河南安阳修定寺唐塔出土,唐代,陶质,高 54.6 厘米,宽 12.7 厘米,厚 9.5 厘米,美国旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆藏(B60S74+)


Dancer relief brick, unearthed from the Tang tower of Xiuding Temple, Anyang, Henan, Tang Dynasty, ceramic, 54.6 cm high, 12.7 cm wide, 9.5 cm thick, San Francisco Asian Art Museum (B60S74 +)


“布伦戴奇对中国式审美的整体有着极为敏锐的触觉,中国古人为平凡日常用品的制作所倾注的大量劳动、技艺、爱与想象力令其着迷; 布伦戴奇的收藏格局注定是跨越材质的 — 因为他致敬的不是人性的贪欲,而是无数不同时期、材质的伟大中国艺术品背后之中国精神,是不朽的、屡屡点石成金的、犹如魔术师般的「中国之手」…”


"Brundage has a very keen sense of the Chinese-style aesthetics as a whole, and the ancient Chinese people fascinated him with the labor, skill, love and imagination for the production of ordinary everyday items; Beyond materials — because he pays tribute not to the greed of human nature, but to the Chinese spirit behind the great Chinese art of countless different periods and materials. "..."


* 本文的撰写得到了旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆,许杰馆长的鼎力支持,感谢杨怡女士,David Armstrong的图片数字支持。

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