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宋代筆記 vol.64 小林一三17.5萬美金(127.75萬人民幣)白地黑花壺:臨宇山人紐約2018專場回顧 - Important Sgraffiato Jar from Kobayashi Ichizo Collection at Christie's 2018 Sales

本場拍賣會的亮點是一個斯格拉菲亞托罐,它曾為東寶株式會社創始人小林一三所有。它的估價為 100,000 - 150,000 美元,成交價為 175,000 美元或 127.75 萬人民幣。



該罐高 18 釐米,製作於宋代。畫師們用黑色圖案裝飾罐子,上部是蓮花瓣尖的圖案,下部是幾何三角形圖案。然後,他們將圖案背景區域的黑泥刮去,露出底層的白泥。此罐的出處令人印象深刻,因此成為本場拍賣會的頂級拍品。記錄顯示,它曾為電影公司東寶株式會社的創始人小林一三(1873 - 1957,上圖)所有。



小林一三先生是最成功的企業家之一。東寶公司、寶塚劇團、阪急百貨公司和阪急鐵路公司的成立使他聲名鵲起。他還積極參與政治活動,曾任國務大臣和工商大臣。小林一三(有時筆名 "一三")還是一位狂熱的藝術品收藏家。他以前的豪宅 "Gazoku Sanso "被改建成一家名為 "Itsuo Art Museum "的美術館,於 1957 年開館。在其收藏的 5000 件藝術品中,有 15 件被列為 "重要文化財”,20 件被列為 "重要藝術品"。


離開一藏之手後,該罐被日本東洋陶瓷研究學會會員小山富士夫(1900 - 1975 年)收藏。之後,它成為臨宇山人收藏的一部分。



金 磁州窯黑剔花幾何紋罐

JIN DYNASTY (1115-1234)



成交價

美元 175,000

估價

美元 100,000 – 美元 150,000


2018年9月13日


金 磁州窯黑剔花幾何紋罐

7 in. (18 cm.) high, Japanese double wood box inscribed by the renowned scholar Fujio Koyama (1900-1975)

來源


小林一三,大阪。

小山富士夫 (1900-1975),大阪。

千秋庭,東京。

出版


《世界陶磁全集‧10‧宋遼》,東京,1954年,228頁,編號 101。

日本陶磁協會,《宋瓷名品展》,東京,1955年,編號111。

《陶器講座‧中国‧宋》,東京,1971年,編號45。

佳士得,《古韻天成:臨宇山人宋瓷珍藏展覽》,香港,2012年,132頁,編號53。

展覽


日本陶磁協會,《宋瓷名品展》,東京,1955年。

佳士得,《古韻天成:臨宇山人宋瓷珍藏展覽》,香港,2012年11月22至27日;紐約,2013年3月15至20日;倫敦,2013年5月10至14日。



拍品專文

宋瓷中以定窯、耀州窯、汝窯為代表的各窯口以素雅的單色釉見長,裝飾則以刻花或模印爲主。磁州窯的陶工則另辟蹊徑,以技術創新開創了美學新境界。本件黑剔花幾何紋罐使用了大膽的設計和強烈的對比色彩,堪稱磁州窯美學的典型代表。這種以色彩對比作爲裝飾基礎的方法為後代元(1279-1368)青花的發展奠定了美學基礎。所以,儘管磁州窯並不生産宮廷瓷器,其產品在中國晚期瓷器發展中卻起到了關鍵作用。


在製作本品的過程中,陶工首先在陶輪上制成基本器型,待晾乾后,用一層厚白色化妝土裏外覆蓋器身(除罐底外)。化妝土是由純淨細陶土與水混合而成。待白色化妝土成型晾乾之後,再使用黑色化妝土覆蓋外層器身,再待其晾乾成形。之後,畫師在黑色化妝土刻出紋樣——上為草葉紋,下為粗波浪紋——然後剔去黑化妝土,露出下層的白色底子。由磁州窯創立並且改進,這種被稱爲剔花的裝飾技巧完美的奠定了瓷器雙色設計的基礎;但僅僅過了幾十年,此類費工費力 的技術就讓位于繪製的白地黑花或褐彩工藝。


儘管常被認爲是鋸齒紋,或被描述成垂綫紋或者波浪紋,本品所示之幾何形狀更似蓮瓣尖角。受佛教雕塑中的蓮花座,和公元七至八世紀初唐代銀盌上的浮雕蓮瓣裝飾影響,浙江上林湖越窯陶工使用蓮瓣裝飾碗缽和蓋盒,例如收藏于倫敦大英博物館大維德基金會的晚唐越窯瓷碗,和臨宇山人舊藏五代/北宋早期越窯青釉刻蓮紋鴛鴦鈕圓盒(見紐約佳士得,2016年9月15日,拍品701號)。至北宋時期,定窯陶工使用此類蓮瓣飾帶環繞立件底部作爲邊飾,如華盛頓弗利尔美術館藏之定窯褐彩矮梅瓶(F1959.6)。磁州窯系幾個窯口之作品亦使用了此种裝飾(見J.J. Lally & Co., 《Chinese Ceramics in Black and White》,2010年3月20日至4月10日,紐約,編號30)。堪薩斯城納尔遜阿特金斯美術館所藏磁州窯黑剔花龍紋瓶(35-116)器身下部的邊飾,不論是V形紋還是令器物局部栩栩如生的綫刻卷草紋都表現出與本罐裝飾極爲類似的親緣關係(35-116;見Colin Mackenzie,《Masterworks of Chinese Art: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art》,堪薩斯城,2011年頁64-5,編號18)。創新能力極強的磁州窯陶工敏銳的發現此類紋飾不僅可以用作鑲邊,更進一步巧妙的將其升級為主要紋飾。


磁州窯系囊括了山東、河北、河南、山西、陝西,甚至位于更西部的多個獨立窯口,分佈於中國北方長約幾百英里的弧形地帶上。雖然其具體產地尚不能遽斷,本品極有可能燒自十二世紀的修武窯。修武窯位于現河南鄭州以北80英里(約100公里)処,燒造時間自唐代(公元618-907)延續至明代(1368-1644)。磁州窯產品以施白化妝土,飾刻、劃花或繪畫紋飾為特點,屬於民窯性質,但常以定窯宮廷用瓷為模仿對象。十一世紀至十二世紀初,大部分磁州窯瓷器于白地上剔刻植物紋,或如本品這樣,在白地之上的黑化妝土上剔刻而成;十二世紀至十四世紀,磁州窯瓷器常以白地黑花技法在器物上作畫或題字。游離于皇權監管之外,磁州窯陶工享有官窯所不具備的創作自由;從某方面來説,磁州窯是當時的制瓷實驗室。儘管沒有燒造出白瓷,但磁州窯在青花瓷的發展中起到了非同尋常的作用,甚至影響了景德鎮(位于江西省東北景德鎮)的制瓷業。


1961年東京出版的《世界陶磁全集》中載有一件與本品十分相近的磁州窯瓷罐飾,同樣採用黑剔花技術,飾錢紋,見卷10:宋・遼篇,編號101。《世界陶磁全集》作者定該近似例為十二世紀修武窯燒製。


毛瑞

哈佛大學藝術博物館亞洲部榮譽主任暨佳士得高級顧問



A VERY RARE LARGE CIZHOU SGRAFFIATO JAR

JIN DYNASTY (1115-1234)


Price realised

USD 175,000

Estimate

USD 100,000 – USD 150,000


13 Sep 2018


A VERY RARE LARGE CIZHOU SGRAFFIATO JAR

JIN DYNASTY (1115-1234)

The deep, slightly tapered sides are carved through the brown slip to the white slip ground with a wide band containing a geometric triangular pattern, beneath a narrower band of abstract scrolls. The brown slip stops just before the mouth rim in an irregular pattern revealing the white slip, which extends to the interior, all under a clear glaze that stops above the foot ring to reveal the buff stoneware body.

7 in. (18 cm.) high, Japanese double wood box inscribed by the renowned scholar Fujio Koyama (1900-1975)

PROVENANCE


Kobayashi Ichizo, Osaka.

Sen Shu Tey, Tokyo.

LITERATURE


Sekai Toji Zenshu-10-Song, Liao, Tokyo, 1954, p. 228, no. 101.

The Japanese Ceramic Society, Soji Meihinten (Exhibition of Famous Song Ceramics), Tokyo, 1955, no. 111.

Toki Koza, Chugoku, Song, Tokyo, 1971, no. 45.

Christie's, The Classic Age of Chinese Ceramics: An Exhibition of Song Treasures from the Linyushanren Collection, Hong Kong, 2012, p. 132, no. 53.

EXHIBITED


The Japanese Ceramic Society, Soji Meihinten (Exhibition of Famous Song Ceramics), Tokyo, 1955.

Christie's, The Classic Age of Chinese Ceramics: An Exhibition of Song Treasures from the Linyushanren Collection, Hong Kong, 22-27 November 2012; New York 15-20 March 2013; London, 10-14 May 2013.


Lot Essay

While potters at the Ding 定窯, Yaozhou 耀州窯, Ru 汝窯, and other Song 宋代 kilns took pride in finishing their wares with subtly hued monochrome glazes, typically applied over incised, carved, or molded decoration, those at the Cizhou kilns 磁州窯 explored new techniques of decoration that resulted in a new aesthetic vision, as perfectly demonstrated by this jar with its bold designs and contrasting colors. This new vision, based on decorative effects that rely on contrasting colors, would lay the aesthetic foundations for the development of blue-and-white porcelain 青花瓷器 in the Yuan dynasty 元朝 (1279–1368). Thus, though neither court nor aristocratic ware, ceramics from the Cizhou kilns nonetheless played a vital role in the development of later Chinese ceramics.


In creating this jar, potters first shaped the piece on the potter’s wheel, then, after allowing it to dry, they covered it all over, inside and out (except for the jar’s underside), with a thick layer of white slip 化妝土, a well-purified clay ground to a fine powder and mixed with water to form a slurry. Once the white slip had stabilized and dried to the proper state, they coated the jar’s exterior with black slip and allowed it to stabilize and dry. Specialized potters then incised the outlines of the decorative elements through the black slip—stylized foliage above and bold chevrons below—after which they shaved the dark slip from the background areas of the design, exposing the underlying white slip. Pioneered and perfected at the Cizhou kilns, this so-called sgraffiato technique successfully put in place the groundwork for two-color designs; utilized for only a few decades, this laborious technique soon gave way to decoration painted in black or brown slip on a white slip ground.


Though often labeled a sawtooth motif and sometimes characterized as lappets or chevrons, the geometric forms in this jar’s main register of decoration more likely represent the tips of lotus petals. Inspired by the lotus-bases of Buddhist sculptures and the relief, lotus-petal designs on Tang 唐朝 silver bowls of the seventh and early eighth centuries, potters at the Yue kilns 越窯 in Shanglinhu, Zhejiang province 浙江省上林湖, occasionally embellished the exteriors of their bowls and covered boxes with a frieze of rising lotus petals, as witnessed by the famous late Tang Yue-ware bowl in the Percival David Foundation Collection at the British Museum (PDF.262) 倫敦大英國博物館大維德基金會藏 and the celebrated Five Dynasties or early Northern Song 五代, 北宋早期 Yue “Mandarin Ducks” box and cover formerly in the Linyushanren Collection 臨宇山人藏 (see: Christie’s, The Classic Age of Chinese Ceramics: The Linyushanren Collection, Part II, auction catalogue, 15 September 2016, New York: Christie’s, lot 701). By the Northern Song period, potters at the Ding kilns had incorporated such lotus-petal bands as border decoration around the base of vertically oriented vessels, as seen in the Freer Gallery of Art’s 華盛頓菲利尔美術館 famous Ding-ware truncated meiping 梅瓶 bottle with decoration painted in brown slip (F1959.6), as had potters at several Cizhou kilns (see: J.J. Lally & Co., Chinese Ceramics in Black and White: March 20 - April 10, 2010, New York: J.J. Lally & Co., no. 30). In fact, the border decoration around the lower portion of the Nelson-Atkins Museum’s 堪薩斯城納尔遜美術館 renowned Cizhou dragon vase (36-116) shows a remarkable kinship to the decoration on this jar, from the bold chevron forms to the delicately incised scrollwork that enlivens localized areas (35-116; see: Colin Mackenzie, Masterworks of Chinese Art: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, 2011, pp. 64-65, no. 18). It is as if the exceptionally innovative Cizhou potters recognized the design potential inherent in a border pattern and brilliantly transformed it into a principal decorative motif.


Stretching over an arc of several hundred miles in northern China, the Cizhou system, or family, of kilns included numerous independent kilns in Shandong, Hebei, Henan, Shanxi, and Shaanxi provinces and even areas farther west. Although its exact location of production remains uncertain, this jar likely was produced in the twelfth century at the Xiuwu kilns 修武窯, roughly eighty miles (100 kilometers) north of present-day Zhengzhou (in Henan province 河南鄭州). Active from the late Tang (618–907) into the Ming 明朝 (1368–1644) dynasty, the Cizhou kilns specialized in stonewares dressed with underglaze white slip and boldly incised, carved, or slip-painted designs. They produced humble wares, often taking inspiration from the aristocratic Ding wares. Cizhou wares from the eleventh and early twelfth centuries generally have floral decoration incised or carved through the white slip—or, as in this example, incised and carved through a coating of black slip atop the white slip ground; those from the twelfth through fourteenth centuries often sport decoration—sometimes pictorial, sometimes calligraphic—brushed in black or brown slip on the white slip ground. Untrammeled by the rarefied conventions of the Imperial court, Cizhou potters enjoyed a freedom of expression unknown at the kilns producing aristocratic wares; in a sense, they became the experimental laboratories of the day. Although they did not produce porcelain 白瓷, the Cizhou kilns nevertheless exerted considerable influence on the development of blue-and-white porcelain 青花瓷器, particularly at Jingdezhen (in northeast Jiangxi province 江西省景德鎮).


A closely related Cizhou jar embellished with a stylized coin pattern, also in sgraffiato technique, that dates to the twelfth century and has been attributed to the Xiuwu kilns is illustrated in Sekai Tōji Zenshū (see: Sekai Tōji Zenshū [Collection of World’s Ceramics], vol. 10—China: Song and Liao, Tokyo: Zauho Press and Kawade Shobō Shinsha, 1961, no. 101. 世界陶磁全集, vol. 10—宋・遼篇, 東京: 座右寶刊行会編輯, 座右寶刊行会, 1961, no. 101).


Robert D. Mowry 毛瑞

Alan J. Dworsky Curator of Chinese Art Emeritus,

Harvard Art Museums, and

Senior Consultant, Christie’s


哈佛大學藝術博物館亞洲部榮譽主任暨佳士得高級顧問



The highlight of the sale is a Sgraffiato jar that was previously owned by Kobayashi Ichizo, founder of Toho Co., Ltd. It is estimated at US$100,000 - 150,000 and sold for US$175,000 or RMB1.2775million.


The jar, measuring at 18cm in height, was made in the Jin Dynasty. Painters decorated the jar with black patterns; the upper part are patterns that represent the tips of lotus petals while the lower part has geometric triangular patterns. They then shaved the dark slip from the background areas of the design, exposing the underlying white slip. The impressive provenance of this jar has made it a top lot of the sale. Record says that it was once owned by Kobayashi Ichizo (1873 - 1957, image above), founder of the film company Toho Co., Ltd.

Mr Ichizo was one of the most successful entrepreneurs. The establishment of his companies Toho,Takarazuka Revue, Hankyu Department Store and Hankyu Railway rocketed him to fame. He was also active in politics and was once Minister Of State and Minister of Commerce and Industry.


Kobayashi Ichizo, sometimes referred to by the pseudonym Itsuō, was also an avid art collector. His former mansion ‘Gazoku Sanso’ was turned into an art gallery called Itsuo Art Museum, which opened in 1957. Amongst 5000 artworks in this collection, 15 are listed as ‘Important Cultural Properties’ and 20 are listed as ‘Important Artworks’.

After leaving Ichizo’s hands, the jar landed in the collection of Koyama Fujio (1900 - 1975), member of Japanese Society of Oriental Ceramic Studies. Then it became part of the Linyushanren collection.


Auction details

Auction house: Christie’s New YorkSale: Masterpieces of Cizhou Ware: The Linyushanren Collection Part IVLots offered: 41Preview:7 - 8 September 2018|10am - 5pm9 September 2018|1pm - 5pm10 - 11 September 2018|10am - 5pm12 September 2018|10am - 2pmAuction: 2018/9/13|10am


本場其他拍品:


北宋 磁州窯白剔花牡丹紋梅瓶

NORTHERN SONG DYNASTY (960-1127)

成交價美元 32,500

估價

美元 30,000 – 美元 50,000

拍品終止拍賣: 2018年9月13日


北宋/金 磁州窯白地黑花牡丹紋小口瓶

NORTHERN SONG-JIN DYNASTY (960-1234)

成交價美元 75,000

估價

美元 60,000 – 美元 80,000

拍品終止拍賣: 2018年9月13日


北宋 磁州窯白釉大梅瓶

NORTHERN SONG DYNASTY (960-1127)

成交價美元 27,500

估價

美元 15,000 – 美元 18,000

拍品終止拍賣: 2018年9月13日


北宋/金 黑釉堆線紋小罐

NORTHERN SONG-JIN DYNASTY (960-1234)

成交價美元 6,250

估價

美元 6,000 – 美元 8,000

拍品終止拍賣: 2018年9月13日


北宋 磁州窯黑剔花牡丹紋瓶

NORTHERN SONG (960-1127)

成交價美元 137,500

估價

美元 60,000 – 美元 80,000

拍品終止拍賣: 2018年9月13日


北宋 攪胎盌

NORTHERN SONG DYNASTY (960-1127)

成交價美元 5,000

估價

美元 3,000 – 美元 5,000

拍品終止拍賣: 2018年9月13日


北宋 攪胎盌

NORTHERN SONG DYNASTY (960-1127)

成交價美元 5,625

估價

美元 4,000 – 美元 6,000

拍品終止拍賣: 2018年9月13日


北宋 磁州窯褐釉跳刀罐

NORTHERN SONG DYNASTY (960-1127)

成交價美元 30,000

估價

美元 6,000 – 美元 8,000

拍品終止拍賣: 2018年9月13日



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