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北朝筆記 vol.3 北魏陽曲護軍虎符863.6萬港元成交,銘文:皇帝與陽曲護軍銅虎符第三、陽曲護軍、銅虎符左、銅虎符右 An inscribed bronze 'Yangqu Hujun' tiger tally set, Northern Wei dynasty.





估價:200-300萬港元

成交價:

開始的時候150萬,200萬書面退出,電話220,網上240,接下來260女士投標,280電話,300萬現場女士,310電話,320新買家,330現場,340電話,350現場,360電話,370,380現場兩位,390,400萬現場女士,420萬電話,440萬現場女士,460萬現場,480電話,500萬⋯⋯ 520萬電話,540萬現場,560萬現場,580萬電話,600萬現場男士,620現場女士,640萬電話,660萬現場男士,680萬現場女士,


來源:

C.T. Loo & Cie, Paris.

Collection of David David-Weill (1871-1952), Paris, coll. nos D.W. 3049.1 and 3049.2.

Sotheby's Paris, 16th December 2015, lot 51.


盧芹齋,巴黎

大維威爾(1871-1952年)收藏,巴黎,收藏編號 D.W. 3049.1及3049.2

巴黎蘇富比2015年12月16日,編號51


出版:


羅振玉,《增訂歷代符牌圖錄》,北京,1925年,頁16(線圖)

羅振玉,〈後魏博陵太守等八虎符拓本跋〉,《松翁近稿補遺》,北京,1925-27年(虎符論及)

拓本或載於《彝器全形拓》,中央研究院歷史語言研究所,台北

拓本或載於柯昌泗,《謐齋金文拓本》,中央研究院歷史語言研究所,台北

喜龍仁,《中國早期藝術史》,卷2,巴黎及布魯塞爾,1929-30年,圖版118B(上)(虎符圖)

馬衡,〈北魏虎符跋〉,《凡將齋金石叢稿》,北京,1977年,頁128-9(虎符論及)

楊桂梅及賈楠,〈兩晉南北朝虎符考〉,《中國國家博物館館刊》,238期,2023年第5期,頁68,圖18(線圖)




專文:

虎符脊刻隸書十二字,曰「皇帝與陽曲護軍銅虎符第三」,左右二符,合之可讀,銘文以「皇帝」二字為首,作抬頭尊敬之意也。虎符兩脅刻「陽曲護軍」,左右文同。腹底分刻「銅虎符右」、「銅虎符左」。文字粗獷渾厚,字字清晰,形制延承兩晉虎符之制。

虎符乃重要軍政信物,戰國末年已有,秦漢兩朝臻於完善。符分二半,以右為尊,右常在内,而左在外,即君王掌右半、而地方將領握左半。君令遣兵,發使者攜右符至郡,歛將領之左符合一,須兩半俱全,且合之,方可號令大軍,此亦為「符合」的詞源。調兵遣將,貴於慎密,不容有誤,是以虎符製作數量甚少,為國之重寶。既為發兵信物,軍權象徵的極致,亦反映君王對其將領的信任,授予其將至高權力及榮耀。



RUBBING OF THE PRESENT TIGER TALLY

此虎符拓片


此陽曲護軍虎符,左右皆具,為整符,據錄於甲子年(1924年)與七符同出山西大同縣東北百餘里貴人村(古都於大同附近者惟北魏故都平城),分別為博陵太守虎符第二、上黨太守虎符第三、遼西太守虎符第□(數字漫漶不辨)、吐京護軍虎符第三、以及離石護軍虎符第一、第三、第四。可參照圖一見北魏故都平城及各虎符所載諸地(包括陽曲)之示意圖。此組出土例僅見羅氏摹本,實物大多散佚,至今下落不明。惟離石護軍虎符第四或後經盧芹齋之手,轉入美國銀行家 Falk 福克伉儷收藏,再釋於紐約佳士得2001年10月16日,編號184,或與羅氏摹本為同一符。吐京護軍虎符亦或與本品同載於喜龍仁,《中國早期藝術史》,卷2,巴黎及布魯塞爾,1929-30年,圖版118B。另見河内太守虎符第三、第五,據於1955年出土於內蒙古土特默旗美岱村,現藏中國國家博物館。


北魏虎符摹本及傳世者,目前僅共見十組整符,形制皆與此陽曲護軍虎符相同,脊刻隸書十二字,輒曰「皇帝與□□[太守或護軍]銅虎符第□」,皆記數字,第一至第五,為北魏政權調兵譴將之憑證。各符所刻的地名官職亦為當代學者提供了可靠的研究資料,增補今人對北魏政局及兵制的認識。詳閲馬劍斌及彭維斌,〈讀《北魏虎符跋》札記〉,《中國國家博物館館刊》,2013年第5期,頁59-62;及楊桂梅及賈楠,〈兩晉南北朝虎符考〉,《國博館刊》,2023年第5期,頁56-76。



陽曲護軍一識,北魏初所置,為管理胡族聚居區而設置,具實際統轄的地區,地位與郡守相等。據史載,曾任此陽曲護軍識位見二人,其一為北魏開國功臣許謙(卒於道武帝皇始元年,公元396年),《魏書.許謙傳》載:「許謙,字元遜,代人也。少有文才,善天文圖讖之學[...]登國初,遂歸太祖。太祖悅,以為右司馬[...]并州平,以謙為陽曲護軍,賜爵平舒侯、安遠將軍。皇始元年卒官,時年六十三[...]」後見奚普回(生活時代當在道武、明元時期,約公元300年代末至400年代初),奚普回為奚斤之弟(奚斤為北魏名將,世稱忠孝、機敏),《魏書.奚斤傳》載:「斤弟普回,陽曲護軍」。



此陽曲護軍虎符為法國金融家大維威爾(1871-1952年)舊藏,早於二十世紀初入藏,釋於2015年巴黎蘇富比專場,現經疏理萬縷千絲,釐清流傳著錄,恰於復光百周年重現藝壇,誠一幸事。




LUO ZHENYU 羅振玉 (1866-1940)

註:羅振玉舊學深醇,畢生寢饋書叢,終成金石大家。羅氏鑽研殷商史學,於清末民初著有《歷代符牌圖錄》等開山之作,於「宣統六年」題序,寫道「今我不作,後來何述」,以表己志,故著錄編寫《圖錄》與增訂卷,以示來者考古之士。羅氏所藏虎符包括辟大夫虎符(現貯北京故宮博物院)及陽陵虎符(現貯中國國家博物館)。


Provenance

C.T. Loo & Cie, Paris.

Collection of David David-Weill (1871-1952), Paris, coll. nos D.W. 3049.1 and 3049.2.

Sotheby's Paris, 16th December 2015, lot 51.


Publications

Luo Zhenyu, Zengding Lidai fupai tulu [Addition to the Catalogue of official symbols of credentials from past dynasties], Beijing, 1925, p. 16 (line drawing).


Luo Zhenyu, 'HouWei Boling Taishou deng ba hufu taben ba' [Epilogue on the eight tiger tallies of the Later Wei dynasty], Songweng jingao buyi, Beijing, 1925-27 (tally discussed).

Possibly illustrated in Yiqi quanxing ta, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei (rubbing).


Possibly illustrated in Ke Changsi, Mizhai jinwen taben [Rubbings of bronze inscriptions from Mizhai], Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei (rubbing).

Osvald Sirén, Histoire des Arts anciens de la Chine, vol. II: L'époque Han et les Six Dynasties, Paris and Brussels, 1929-30, pl. 118B (top) (tally illustrated).


Ma Heng, 'BeiWei hufu ba' [Epilogue on Northern Wei tiger tally], Fanjiangzhai jinshi conggao, Beijing, 1977, pp. 128-9 (tally discussed).


Yang Guimei and Jia Nan, 'A Research on the tiger-shaped tallies of the Jin and the Southern and Northern dynasties', Journal of National Museum of China, vol. 238, 2023(5), p. 68, fig. 18 (line drawing).


Essay:


Tiger tally (hufu), an ancient command token used for troop deployment, originated during the Eastern Zhou dynasty and stylistically harmonized during the Han and Qin dynasties. Typically taking the shape of a tiger (hence its name, although it also adopted other animal forms during the Tang dynasty), the tally was carved with an inscription onto its body, and was then divided into two halves with complementary pins and notches. Generally, the right half was kept in the emperor's hand, whilst the other half was held by the commanding general stationed away from the capital. To deploy a troop, a messenger had to bring the emperor's half and combine the two segments. Only when the two halves were reunited could the accompanying military orders be executed, serving as an archaic encryption and verification method to ensure the order's legitimacy. Additionally, the tiger tally symbolized the imperial authority bestowed upon the generals.


THE PRESENT TIGER TALLY WAS RECORDED IN LINE DRAWING BY LUO ZHENYU IN HIS SEMINAL WORK ZENGDING LIDAI FUPAI TULU [ADDITION TO THE CATALOGUE OF OFFICIAL SYMBOLS OF CREDENTIALS FROM PAST DYNASTIES].

此陽曲護軍虎符摹本收錄於羅振玉《增訂歷代符牌圖錄》


Due to their significance, tiger tallies were made in a carefully calculated quantity, resulting in surviving examples being few and far between. The present tally was first documented in 1925 by Luo Zhenyu (1866-1940), one of the great epigraphers and archaeological pioneers of modern China; it was reportedly unearthed the year prior in Guiren Village, located about a hundred miles northeast of present-day Datong, coinciding the location of the Northern Wei’s capital, Pingcheng, before its relocation to Luoyang. This tally is inscribed on the spine with twelve characters reading Huangdi yu Yangqu Hujun tong hufu disan, which means the emperor bestows this bronze tiger tally, numbered three, upon the Protector of the Yangqu Army (see fig. 1 for the historical mention of the location Yangqu).


According to historical records in the Book of Wei, two specific individuals are mentioned to have held this esteemed title of Yangqu Hujun. One of them is Xu Qian 許謙 (334-396), a formidable warrior, military general, and one of the founding fathers of Northern Wei. He convinced Tuoba Gui (the King of Wei when he was still a vassal of the Later Yan at the time) to proclaim himself emperor and initiate a decisive counter-attack against the retreating forces of Later Yan, ultimately conquering them in 397 and seizing most of their territory. This triumph marked the establishment of the Northern Wei and earned Xu Qian the prestigious title of Yangqu Hujun. The other individual who has held this title is Xi Puhui 奚普回, a general hailing from a lineage of military service and active during the late 300s to early 400s. This specific Hujun ('Protector of the Army') position was established with the intention of governing the Hu minority group.


FIG. 1. A HISTORICAL MAP SHOWING THE LOCATION OF NORTHERN WEI’S CAPITAL, PINGCHENG (MARKED IN BLUE), AND THE STATIONS OF THE RECIPIENT GENERALS INDICATED BY THE TIGER TALLIES, INCLUDING YANGQU (MARKED IN RED), AND FROM RIGHT TO LEFT IN AN ANTI-CLOCKWISE DIRECTION ARE THE LOCATIONS OF LIAOXI, BOLING, TUJING, SHANGDANG AND HENEI (MARKED IN GREEN).

ORIGINAL VERSION OF THE MAP ILLUSTRATED IN ‘SONG AND WEI DYNASTIES OF CHINA’, THE HISTORICAL ATLAS OF CHINA, BEIJING, 1982-88.

圖一 北魏中期都城平城、及各虎符所載諸地示意圖 地圖原版錄於《宋、魏時期全圖》,《中國歷史地圖集》,北京,1982-88年(註:陽曲屬肆州、博陵屬定州、河内原屬豫州)


Nine additional Norther Wei tallies have been documented, but unfortunately, most of their current whereabouts have become unknown. These tallies are significant as each of them bears distinct inscriptions indicating the recipient generals stationed in seven different locations and are numbered from 1 to 5, providing valuable insight into the military systems of the time. Seven of them were discovered alongside the present tally: Boling Taishou (numbered 2), Liaoxi Taishou (indiscernible number), Shangdang Taishou (numbered 3), Tujing Hujun (numbered 3), Lishi Hujun (numbered 1, 3 and 4; numbered 4 likely being the same one dealt by C.T. Loo, later entering the Falk Collection and subsequently sold at Christie's New York, 16th October 2001, lot 184). Two, now widely exhibited, Henei Taishou (numbered 3 and 5) were reputedly found by villagers in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, in 1955, which were apparently mistakenly assumed to be valuable metal and hence miraculously survived; they are now preserved in the National Museum of China.


The present tiger tally was also recorded in line drawing by Luo in his seminal work Zengding Lidai fupai tulu [Addition to the Catalogue of official symbols of credentials from past dynasties]. In his foreword, he expressed his sense of responsibility to publish and document all tallies known to him for the benefit of future antiquarians and epigraphers; his foresight proved accurate, as his meticulous work laid the foundation for current academic research. For detailed discussions on Northern Wei tiger tallies, see Ma Jianbin and Peng Weibin, ‘Essay on Tiger-Shaped Tallies of Northern Wei Dynasty: A Reading Note’, Journal of National Museum of China, vol. 118, 2013(5), pp. 59-62, and Yang Guimei and Jia Nan, 'A Research on the tiger-shaped tallies of the Jin and the Southern and Northern dynasties', Journal of National Museum of China, vol. 238, 2023(5), pp. 56-76.


A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE PRESENT TALLY ILLUSTRATED IN OSVALD SIRÉN, HISTOIRE DES ARTS ANCIENS DE LA CHINE, VOL. II: L'ÉPOQUE HAN ET LES SIX DYNASTIES, PARIS AND BRUSSELS, 1929-30, PL. 118B (TOP). THE BOTTOM PAIR IS POSSIBLY INSCRIBED WITH TUJING HUJUN.


本符載於喜龍仁,《中國早期藝術史》,卷2,巴黎及布魯塞爾,1929-30年,圖版118B(上)。圖下方或為吐京護軍虎符。


The journey of this tally is truly remarkable, spanning different historical periods and continents, the tally survived through both the tumultuous times of the Northern Wei and, more than a millennium later, the early decades of the Republican period. It was dealt through the hands of C.T. Loo and found its way to Europe, where it was treasured by the great collector David David-Weill, who held a deep passion for Chinese archaic bronze and jade. From being a military token and a symbol of imperial authority, the tally transitioned to a vessel carrying cultural significance, providing insights into the antiquarian culture of 19th-century modern China. The traceable trail of provenance of this tally would not have been possible without the diligent documentation made by Luo, who was amongst the first to recognize the significance of archaic materials and adamant about finding out the archaeological origins of each artefact he encountered. He was also an early advocate for the preservation of antiquities in public institutions, ensuring the enduring legacy of these artefacts. Several tiger tallies that he preserved, such as the well-known Warring States Bidafu hufu and the Qin dynasty Yangling hufu, found their rightful place in Beijing Palace Museum and National Museum of China.



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